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Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Griffiths, M. D., Su, J.-A., Latner, J. D., . . . Pakpour, A. H. (2020). A prospective study on the link between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating: Role of food addiction and psychological distress. International Journal of Eating Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prospective study on the link between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating: Role of food addiction and psychological distress
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: This prospective study investigated the link between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating by (a) examining the temporal association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating; (b) investigating the mediating role of food addiction in the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating; and (c) examining the mediating role of psychological distress in the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating.

METHOD: Participants comprised 1,497 adolescents (mean = 15.1 years; SD = 6.0). Body mass index and weight bias were assessed at baseline; psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) assessed and food addiction at 3 months; and binge eating at 6 months. The mediation model was analyzed using Model 4 in the PROCESS macro for SPSS with 10,000 bootstrapping resamples.

RESULTS: There was no significant direct association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating. However, food addiction and psychological distress significantly mediated the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating.

DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the indirect association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating via food addiction and psychological distress. Consequently, intervention programs targeting food addiction and psychological distress among adolescents may have significant positive effects on outcomes for weight-related self-stigma and binge eating. The findings will be beneficial to researchers and healthcare professionals working with adolescents during this critical developmental period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
adolescents, binge eating, food addiction, psychological distress, weight-related self-stigma
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47431 (URN)10.1002/eat.23219 (DOI)000505636400001 ()31905249 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077852717 (Scopus ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number);HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Sanaeinasab, H., Saffari, M., Dashtaki, M.-a., Pakpour, A. H., Karimi Zarchi, A., O'Garo, K.-G. N. & Koenig, H. G. (2020). A theory of planned behavior-based program to increase physical activity in overweight/obese military personnel: A randomised controlled trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 12(1), 101-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theory of planned behavior-based program to increase physical activity in overweight/obese military personnel: A randomised controlled trial
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2020 (English)In: Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, ISSN 1758-0846, E-ISSN 1758-0854, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 101-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Designing a health promotion program to increase physical activity may contribute to weight management. The purpose of this study was to investigate a theory of planned behavior (TPB) program to address this problem in military people.

Methods: Eighty-four obese/overweight military personnel were randomised into the intervention or control group. A questionnaire assessed demographics, aspects of the TPB program, and physical activity levels. Also assessed were blood glucose and lipid levels. The intervention consisted of seven educational sessions based on TPB. Data were collected at baseline and 3 months after the intervention.

Results: All constructs of the TPB improved between baseline and follow-up in the intervention group (p <.001), while there were no significant changes in the control group (within-group comparisons). Between-group comparisons on TPB measures revealed differences in all domains when results were controlled for baseline covariates. Greater light and moderate physical activity was observed in the intervention group. Body mass index decreased significantly within the intervention group (p <.001). Changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein also favored the intervention over the control group.

Conclusion: An intervention based on the TPB may be effective in promoting physical activity and decreasing weight in military personnel who are obese or overweight. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
health education, military, obesity, physical activity
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45597 (URN)10.1111/aphw.12175 (DOI)000518530800006 ()31353846 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070297944 (Scopus ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number);HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2020-04-01Bibliographically approved
Lin, C.-Y., Cheng, A. S. K., Nejati, B., Imani, V., Ulander, M., Browall, M., . . . Pakpour, A. H. (2020). A thorough psychometric comparison between Athens Insomnia Scale and Insomnia Severity Index among patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Sleep Research, 29(1), Article ID e12891.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A thorough psychometric comparison between Athens Insomnia Scale and Insomnia Severity Index among patients with advanced cancer
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 1, article id e12891Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For patients with cancer, sleep disturbance is commonplace. Using classical test theory and Rasch analyses, the present study compared two commonly used psychometric instruments for insomnia – Athens Insomnia Scale and Insomnia Severity Index – among patients with advanced cancer. Through convenience sampling, patients with cancer at stage III or IV (n = 573; 326 males; mean age = 61.3 years; SD = 10.7) from eight oncology units of university hospitals in Iran participated in the study. All the participants completed the Athens Insomnia Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additionally, 433 participants wore an Actigraph device for two continuous weekdays. Classical test theory and Rasch analysis both supported the construct validity for Athens Insomnia Scale (factor loadings from confirmatory factor analysis = 0.61–0.87; test–retest reliability = 0.72–0.82; infit mean square = 0.81–1.17; outfit MnSq = 0.79–1.14) and for Insomnia Severity Index (factor loadings from confirmatory factor analysis = 0.61–0.81; test–retest reliability = 0.72–0.82; infit mean square = 0.72–1.14; outfit mean square = 0.76–1.11). Both Athens Insomnia Scale and Insomnia Severity Index had significant associations with Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, as well as having good sensitivity and specificity. Significant differences in the actigraphy measure were found between insomniacs and non-insomniacs based on Athens Insomnia Scale or Insomnia Severity Index score. With promising results, healthcare providers can use either Athens Insomnia Scale or Insomnia Severity Index to understand the insomnia of patients with advanced cancer. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
confirmatory factor analysis, insomnia, oncology, psychometrics, Rasch analysis, sleep disorders
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45538 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12891 (DOI)000505736000005 ()31328319 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069828622 (Scopus ID);HHJADULTIS (Local ID);HHJADULTIS (Archive number);HHJADULTIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Lin, C.-Y., Lin, C., Imani, V., Griffiths, M. D. & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). Evaluation of the Selfitis Behavior Scale Across Two Persian-Speaking Countries, Iran and Afghanistan: Advanced Psychometric Testing in a Large-Scale Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18(1), 222-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Selfitis Behavior Scale Across Two Persian-Speaking Countries, Iran and Afghanistan: Advanced Psychometric Testing in a Large-Scale Sample
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selfitis—which started off as a hoax but has now been investigated empirically—has been defined as the obsessive–compulsive desire to take photos of oneself and post them on social media. Furthermore, a scale to assess selfitis, the Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS), has been developed. This study applied advanced psychometric testing methods, including confirmatory factor analysis (utilizing classical test theory) and the Rasch model (utilizing modern test theory), to examine the psychometric properties among Persian speakers (in Iran and Afghanistan). The participants (3163 Iranians and 1100 Afghanistani) completed an online survey posted on Instagram pages. The SBS showed promising properties, including satisfactory reliability (e.g., internal consistency and test–retest reliability), excellent construct validity (e.g., good fit in the CFA and Rasch models), and acceptable measurement invariance across Iranian and Afghan samples. Consequently, the SBS is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing selfitis among Persian-speaking samples. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Instagram use, Selfie-taking, Selfitis, Selfitis Behavior Scale, Social media use, adult, Afghanistan, article, confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, human, internal consistency, Iran, Iranian (citizen), Rasch analysis, social media, speech, test retest reliability, theoretical study
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47992 (URN)10.1007/s11469-019-00124-y (DOI)000515000100018 ()2-s2.0-85071257620 (Scopus ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number);HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-24 Created: 2020-03-24 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
Leung, H., Pakpour, A. H., Strong, C., Lin, Y.-C., Tsai, M.-C., Griffiths, M. D., . . . Chen, I.-H. (2020). Measurement invariance across young adults from Hong Kong and Taiwan among three internet-related addiction scales: Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), and Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part A).. Addictive Behaviours, 101, Article ID 105969.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement invariance across young adults from Hong Kong and Taiwan among three internet-related addiction scales: Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), and Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part A).
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2020 (English)In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 101, article id 105969Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internet addiction has been found to be prevalent worldwide, including Asian countries, and related to several negative outcomes and other behavioral addictions. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), and nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9) have been extensively used to assess internet-related addictions. However, the three aforementioned instruments have rarely been used in Asian countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 were appropriate for use in heterogeneous subsamples from Hong Kong and Taiwan. University students from Hong Kong (n = 306) and Taiwan (n = 336) were recruited via an online survey. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to assess measurement invariance of the BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 across the two subcultures. The original unidimensional structures of BSMAS, SABAS and IGDS-SF9 were confirmed through confirmatory factorial analysis in both subcultures. The MGCFA results showed that the unidimensional structures of the BSMAS and IGDS-SF9 were invariant across the two Chinese cultural areas (Hong Kong and Taiwan). However, the measurement invariance of the SABAS was established after some model modifications. In conclusion, the present study found that the Chinese BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 were all adequate instruments to validly assess internet-related addictions among university students. The three brief instruments used for assessing addictions to social media, smartphone applications, and online gaming are valid and psychometrically robust across two Chinese subcultures and can be used by healthcare professionals in these regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Chinese, Internet gaming disorder, Measurement invariance, Smartphone addiction, Social media addiction
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43792 (URN)10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.04.027 (DOI)000501402200019 ()31078344 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064972035 (Scopus ID)PP HHJ 2020 embargo 24;HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID)PP HHJ 2020 embargo 24;HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number)PP HHJ 2020 embargo 24;HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Nejati, B., Lin, C.-Y., Griffiths, M. D. & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Persian Food-Life Questionnaire Short Form among obese breast cancer survivors. Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, 7(1), 64-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychometric properties of the Persian Food-Life Questionnaire Short Form among obese breast cancer survivors
2020 (English)In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 2347-5625, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To assist weight control among women with breast cancer, improving their food attitudes may be an effective method. Therefore, the present study validated a short instrument assessing food attitudes (i.e., the Short Form of the Food-Life Questionnaire [FLQ-SF]) among Iranian women with breast cancer who are overweight.

Methods: Women with breast cancer who were overweight (n = 493; mean ± standard deviation age = 52.3 ± 10.7 years) participated in the study. All of them completed the FLQ-SF, questions designed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB; including subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Both classical test theory and Rasch models were used to examine the psychometric properties of the FLQ-SF. More specifically, the factorial structure of the FLQ-SF was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the item fit was examined using the Rasch model, and the concurrent validity was evaluated using the correlation between the FLQ-SF, TPB elements, and FFQ.

Results: CFA results confirmed the Persian FLQ-SF has a five-factor structure. Rasch models indicated that all the FLQ-SF items fit in the construct of food attitudes. Significant correlations between FLQ-SF and other instruments (TPB elements and FFQ) supported the concurrent validity of the FLQ-SF.

Conclusions: The psychometric findings of the present study demonstrated that Persian FLQ-SF is a reliable and valid instrument. Therefore, the Persian FLQ-SF can be applied to assess food attitudes among Iranian women with breast cancer who are overweight. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2020
Keywords
Breast cancer, classical test theory, food attitude, obesity, Rasch model
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47216 (URN)10.4103/apjon.apjon_43_19 (DOI)000506368400011 ()31879686 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076815191 (Scopus ID)POA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID)POA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number)POA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Fung, X. C., Pakpour, A. H., Wu, Y.-K. -., Fan, C.-W. -., Lin, C.-Y. -. & Tsang, H. W. (2020). Psychosocial Variables Related to Weight-Related Self-Stigma in Physical Activity among Young Adults across Weight Status. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), Article ID 64.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial Variables Related to Weight-Related Self-Stigma in Physical Activity among Young Adults across Weight Status
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A healthy lifestyle with sufficient physical activity (PA) can contribute to weight management. Yet, many people do not maintain a healthy lifestyle. To explain PA, we propose a model that incorporates the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with weight-related self-stigma. We recruited 325 young adults to complete questionnaires regarding their physical activities, weight-related self-stigma, and TPB factors. We used structural equation modeling to examine the model fit and the path invariance across weight groups. The model showed excellent model fit, but path invariance was not supported. Weight-related self-stigma significantly explained the perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and engagement of PA. People without overweight and people with overweight have different considerations for PA. Weight-related self-stigma is important for PA as well. To promote a healthy lifestyle, healthcare providers should provide different suggestions or interventions that suit their patients' weight-related concerns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
overweight, physical activity, stigma, the theory of planned behavior
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47240 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17010064 (DOI)000509391500064 ()31861769 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076999267 (Scopus ID)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2020-01-07 Created: 2020-01-07 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
Wong, H. Y., Mo, H. Y., Potenza, M. N., Chan, M. N., Lau, W. M., Chui, T. K., . . . Lin, C.-Y. (2020). Relationships between severity of internet gaming disorder, severity of problematic social media use, sleep quality and psychological distress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), Article ID E1879.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between severity of internet gaming disorder, severity of problematic social media use, sleep quality and psychological distress
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 6, article id E1879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internet gaming and social media use are prevalent and integral to many people's lives. However, excessive engagement in either could lead to negative health impacts. This study aimed to investigate relationships between severities of internet gaming disorder (IGD) and problematic social media use (operationalized as social media addiction; SMA) with sleep quality and psychological distress among young adults. A cross-sectional study with snowball sampling was conducted among Hong Kong university students in 2019. All participants (n = 300; mean (SD) age = 20.89 (1.48); 122 males (40.67%)) responded to an online survey that included Chinese versions of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multiple linear regressions demonstrated that IGDS-SF9 scores demonstrated associations with psychological distress measures (standardized coefficient (β) = 0.295 for depression, 0.325 for anxiety, 0.339 for stress, all p < 0.001). BSMAS scores showed similar albeit numerically less robust associations (β = 0.235 for depression, p < 0.001; 0.219 for anxiety, p = 0.001; 0.262 for stress, p < 0.001). BSMAS scores demonstrated associations with poorer sleep quality (β = 0.292; p < 0.001) and IGDS9-SF scores (β = 0.157; p = 0.024) showed a significantly less robust association (p = 0.01 for comparing the two βs). These findings suggest that both severities of IGD and SMA associate with more psychological distress and poorer sleep quality, although the strengths of associations may differ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
behavior addiction, gaming, psychological distress, sleep quality, social media
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-48036 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17061879 (DOI)32183188 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081640804 (Scopus ID)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number)GOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-31 Created: 2020-03-31 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Scheerman, J. F. M., van Meijel, B., van Empelen, P., Verrips, G. H. W., van Loveren, C., Twisk, J. W. R., . . . Kramer, G. J. C. (2020). The effect of using a mobile application (“WhiteTeeth”) on improving oral hygiene: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 18(1), 73-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of using a mobile application (“WhiteTeeth”) on improving oral hygiene: A randomized controlled trial
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WhiteTeeth mobile app, a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program for promoting oral hygiene in adolescent orthodontic patients.

Methods: In this parallel randomized controlled trial, the data of 132 adolescents were collected during three orthodontic check-ups: at baseline (T0), at 6-week follow-up (T1) and at 12-week follow-up (T2). The intervention group was given access to the WhiteTeeth app in addition to usual care (n = 67). The control group received usual care only (n = 65). The oral hygiene outcomes were the presence and the amount of dental plaque (Al-Anezi and Harradine plaque index), and the total number of sites with gingival bleeding (Bleeding on Marginal Probing Index). Oral health behaviour and its psychosocial factors were measured through a digital questionnaire. We performed linear mixed-model analyses to determine the intervention effects.

Results: At 6-week follow-up, the intervention led to a significant decrease in gingival bleeding (B = −3.74; 95% CI −6.84 to −0.65) and an increase in the use of fluoride mouth rinse (B = 1.93; 95% CI 0.36 to 3.50). At 12-week follow-up, dental plaque accumulation (B = −11.32; 95% CI −20.57 to −2.07) and the number of sites covered with plaque (B = −6.77; 95% CI −11.67 to −1.87) had been reduced significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group.

Conclusions: The results show that adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances can be helped to improve their oral hygiene when usual care is combined with a mobile app that provides oral health education and automatic coaching. Netherlands Trial Registry Identifier: NTR6206: 20 February 2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
health behaviour, health promotion, mobile applications, oral hygiene index and oral hygiene, telemedicine
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45598 (URN)10.1111/idh.12415 (DOI)000481130300001 ()31291683 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070262878 (Scopus ID)HOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID)HOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number)HOA HHJ 2020;HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
Chen, I.-H., Strong, C., Lin, Y.-C., Tsai, M.-C., Leung, H., Lin, C.-Y., . . . Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Time invariance of three ultra-brief internet-related instruments: Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale- Short Form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part B).. Addictive Behaviours, 101, Article ID 105960.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time invariance of three ultra-brief internet-related instruments: Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale- Short Form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part B).
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2020 (English)In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 101, article id 105960Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given the many technological advances over the past two decades, a small minority of young people are at risk of problematic use or becoming addicted to these technologies (including activities on the internet and smartphones). Many brief psychometric scales have been developed to assess those at risk of problematic use or addiction including the six-item Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale [SABAS], the six-item Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale [BSMAS], and the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form [IGDS-SF9]). However, to date, the reproducibility of these three scales has only been examined over a short period of time (e.g., two weeks), and it is unclear whether they are time invariant across a longer period (e.g., three months). Given the emergence of internet and smartphone addiction in Chinese population, the present study translated the three instruments into Chinese and recruited 640 university students (304 from Hong Kong [99 males] and 336 from Taiwan [167 males]) to complete the three scales twice (baseline and three months after baseline). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was applied to examine the time invariance. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability, and the percentage of smallest real difference (SRD%) was utilized to explore the absolute reliability for the three scales. MGCFA showed that all three scales were time invariant across three months. ICC demonstrated that all the scales were satisfactory in reproducibility (0.82 to 0.94), and SRD% indicated that all the scales had acceptable measurement noise (23.8 to 29.4). In conclusion, the short, valid, reliable, and easy-to-use Chinese SABAS, BSMAS, and IGDS-SF9 show good properties across periods of three months.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Internet gaming disorder, Online addictions, Smartphone addiction, Social media addiction, Time invariance
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43793 (URN)10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.04.018 (DOI)000501402200016 ()31072648 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064988059 (Scopus ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Local ID);HHJÖvrigtIS (Archive number);HHJÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8798-5345

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