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Eklund, Johan
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Publications (10 of 66) Show all publications
Eklund, J. & Lappi, E. (2019). Persistence of profits in the EU: how competitive are EU member countries?. Empirica, 46(2), 327-351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistence of profits in the EU: how competitive are EU member countries?
2019 (English)In: Empirica, ISSN 0340-8744, E-ISSN 1573-6911, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 327-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Profits that persist above or below the norm for prolonged periods of time reveal a lack of competition and imply a systematic misallocation of resources. Competition, if unimpeded, should restore profits to normal levels within a relatively short time frame. The dynamics of profits can thus reveal a great deal about the competitiveness of an economy. This paper estimates the persistence of profits across the European Union (EU), which adds to our understanding of the competitiveness of 18 EU member states. By using a sample of approximately 4700 firms with 51,000 observations across the time period of 1995–2013, we find differences in the persistence of short-run profits, implying that there are differences in competitiveness across the EU. The Czech Republic and Greece are among the countries with the highest profit persistence, whereas the United Kingdom is among those with the lowest persistence of profits. Furthermore, we provide evidence that there are significant permanent rents present in the EU across countries as well as in the different broad sectors across the EU. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Competition, Competitiveness, European Union, Persistence of profits
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39005 (URN)10.1007/s10663-018-9399-5 (DOI)000464836700005 ()2-s2.0-85042067830 (Scopus ID)HOA JIBS 2019 (Local ID)HOA JIBS 2019 (Archive number)HOA JIBS 2019 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Braunerhjelm, P., Eklund, J. & Thulin, P. (2019). Taxes, the tax administrative burden and the entrepreneurial life cycle. Small Business Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxes, the tax administrative burden and the entrepreneurial life cycle
2019 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a modified version of the entrepreneurial choice model, where it is shown that the expected utility of becoming an entrepreneur is decreasing in both the levels of taxes and the tax administrative burden. We extend previous empirical findings by examining how these variables influence entrepreneurs at different stages in the entrepreneurial life cycle. Our findings imply that the effect of the tax administrative burden varies over the entrepreneurial life cycle from strongly negative to insignificant. The most pronounced negative effects appear in the early stages of entrepreneurship. We conclude that a 10% reduction in the tax administrative burden increases the propensity for new business establishments by 4%. Our findings support the idea that tax simplification is one way to encourage entrepreneurship, without any reduction in tax revenues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Entrepreneurship, Life cycle, Tax administrative burden, Tax complexity
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-44616 (URN)10.1007/s11187-019-00195-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066304891 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-18 Created: 2019-06-18 Last updated: 2019-06-18
Eklund, J. & Thulin, P. (2018). 250 miljarder fattigare! Svensk produktivitetsutveckling 1950–2027. Ekonomisk Debatt, 46(8), 70-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>250 miljarder fattigare! Svensk produktivitetsutveckling 1950–2027
2018 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 70-78Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nationalekonomiska Föreningen, 2018
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46779 (URN)
Note

Artikeln baserar sig på Eklund och Thulin (2018), där ett mer utförligt resonemang och beräkningar återfinnes: https://entreprenorskapsforum.se/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/PS_Produktivitet.pdf

Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. & Thulin, P. (2018). 250 miljarder fattigare! Svensk produktivitetsutveckling 1950–2027. Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum, 46(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>250 miljarder fattigare! Svensk produktivitetsutveckling 1950–2027
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sverige uppvisar en synnerligen låg produktivitetsutveckling och tillväxten av BNP per capita har under 2017, och sannolikt även 2018, legat lägst inom EU. Dessutom befinner vi oss just nu i en högkonjunktur som tycks vara på väg mot sitt slut. Ökad produktivitet kan vara nyckeln till att lyckas möta många av de samhällsutmaningar Sverige står inför, allt från miljöproblem till en åldrande befolkning. Dessvärre har reformförmågan på senare år varit alltför svag och politiken har saknat tillräckligt fokus på effektivitet.

I policysammanfattningen pekar författarna på att Sverige presterar under sin ekonomiska potential med negativa välståndseffekter som följd. Enligt beräkningar motsvarar effektivitetsförlusterna p.g.a. tilltagande matchningsproblem mer än 250 miljarder kronor! Sverige är med andra ord minst 250 miljarder fattigare – eller har rättare sagt 250 miljarder lägre inkomster per år – än vad som vore möjligt. De föreslår vägar till förbättring vad gäller de strukturella problemen och vilka reformer som krävs för en ekonomisk politik som gynnar innovationer och entreprenörskap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum, 2018. p. 21
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46780 (URN)
Note

"Policysammanfattning från Entreprenörskapsforum"

Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Button, K. J. & Eklund, J. (2018). Are there inherent biases in applying cost–benefit analysis?. Applied Economics Letters, 25(7), 461-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are there inherent biases in applying cost–benefit analysis?
2018 (English)In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article extends discussions of potential biases that can exist in applying cost–benefit analysis. While there is extensive evidence that capture can result in stakeholder manipulation of inputs, there are also claims that the analysis is inherently theoretically bias in favour of over acceptance. The article shows that, contrary to these latter claims, treating projects in isolation is unlikely to produce such bias; indeed, it is as likely as not to lead to suboptimally low acceptance rates. The reason for excessive acceptance of projects therefore is largely due to institutional capture of the analysis for either self-interest or natural human over-optimism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Cost–benefit analysis, appraisal bias, welfare economics, investment appraisal
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37865 (URN)10.1080/13504851.2017.1332743 (DOI)XYZ ()2-s2.0-85019702230 (Scopus ID)IHHCeFEOIS (Local ID)IHHCeFEOIS (Archive number)IHHCeFEOIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-11-12 Created: 2017-11-12 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M. & Eklund, J. (Eds.). (2018). Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy. Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy
2018 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum, 2018. p. 143
Series
Swedish Economic Forum Report
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46776 (URN)978-91-89301-99-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M. & Eklund, J. (2018). Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy. In: M. Andersson & J. Eklund (Ed.), Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy (pp. 7-19). Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy
2018 (Swedish)In: Navigera under osäkerhet: entreprenörskap, innovationer och experimentell policy / [ed] M. Andersson & J. Eklund, Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum , 2018, p. 7-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum, 2018
Series
Swedish Economic Forum Report
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46777 (URN)978-91-89301-99-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. & Lappi, E. (2018). Product regulations and persistence of profits: OECD evidence. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 54(2), 147-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product regulations and persistence of profits: OECD evidence
2018 (English)In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680X, E-ISSN 1573-0468, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 147-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In competitive markets, profits deviating from the norm will not persist for extended periods. If unimpeded, entry and exit of firms should restore profits to competitive levels. This dynamic process is influenced by regulations that temporarily or permanently impede competition. We study how product market regulations (PMR)—as measured by the OECD—affect competition by their impact on the profit persistence (Wölfl et al. in Ten years of product market reform in OECD countries-insights from a revised PMR indicator, 2009, Product market regulation: extending the analysis beyond OECD countries, 2010). To examine profit dynamics, we follow the methodology developed by Mueller (Economica 44(176):369–380, 1977), which measures both the short run persistence of profits and the long run permanent rents. The method can be used to measure: (1) short run transitory rents; (2) long run permanent rents. To this end we use firm level data from 30 OECD countries over the period 1998–2013. Results show that PMR increase the permanent rents of firms but we find no significant effect on short run profit persistence. We conclude that PMR negatively influence competition and increase permanent rents, resulting in misallocation of resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Profits, Persistence of profits, Competition, Product market regulation, Regulations Entry
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41823 (URN)10.1007/s11149-018-9365-y (DOI)000446026400003 ()2-s2.0-85053392058 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Wikström, M. & Eklund, J. (2018). Studiedestination Sverige - privat kapital för ökad kompetensförsörjning och konkurrenskraft?. Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studiedestination Sverige - privat kapital för ökad kompetensförsörjning och konkurrenskraft?
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Antalet studenter vid svenska lärosäten från länder utanför EES och Schweiz sjönk kraftigt efter införandet av studieavgifter 2011. Trots en viss återhämtning sedan dess finns anledning att stärka trenden, både för lärosätenas verksamhet och p.g.a. den kompetensbrist som svenska företag upplever. Våra svenska lärosäten utbildar inte för marknadens behov i tillräcklig utsträckning och där kan tredjelandsstudenter vara en viktig komponent i lösningen. Dessutom stärker kunskapsutbyten länder emellan svensk konkurrenskraft och entreprenörskap.

I rapporten diskuterar författarna hur vi kan stärka Sveriges attraktivitet som studiedestination och kunskapsnation. Bl.a. undersöks hur näringslivet skulle kunna engageras och motiveras att bidra och på vilket sätt privat kapital kan användas för att attrahera och göra det möjligt för kvalificerade studenter att välja Sverige.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Entreprenörskapsforum, 2018. p. 40
Series
Filantropiskt forum rapport ; 7
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46778 (URN)978-91-89301-97-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J., Henrekson, M. & Stenkula, M. (2017). Alla kan bli vinnare i en globaliserad värld. Göteborgs-Posten, 14 maj
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alla kan bli vinnare i en globaliserad värld
2017 (Swedish)In: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, Vol. 14 majArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37872 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
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