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Nystedt, Paul
Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Björklund Carlstedt, A., Brushammar, G., Bjursell, C., Nystedt, P. & Nilsson, G. (2018). A scoping review of the incentives for a prolonged work life after pensionable age and the importance of “bridge employment”. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, 60(2), 175-189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A scoping review of the incentives for a prolonged work life after pensionable age and the importance of “bridge employment”
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2018 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 175-189Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: With a growing share of older people in almost every population, discussions are being held worldwide about how to guarantee welfare in the immediate future. Different solutions are suggested, but in this article the focus is on the need to keep older employees active in the labor market for a prolonged time.

Objective: The aim was to find out and describe the incentives at three system levels for older people 1) wanting, 2) being able, and 3) being allowed to work.

Material: The literature search embraced articles from the databases Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, AgeLine and Business Source Premier, from May 2004 until May 2016. After the removal of 507 duplicates, the selection and analysis started with the 1331 articles that met the search criteria. Of these, 58 articles corresponded with the research questions.

Method: The design was a ‘scoping review’ of the research area bridge employment and prolonged work life.

Results: The results show that most investigations are conducted on individual-level predictors, research on organizational-level predictors is more scattered, and societal-level predictor information is scarce.

Conclusions: Attitudes and behavior according to a prolonged work life could be summarized as dependent on good health, a financial gain in combination with flexible alternative working conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2018
Keywords
Career jobs, Organizational levels, old workforce, older employees, self-employed
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38106 (URN)10.3233/WOR-182728 (DOI)XYZ ()29966215 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-07-06
Lång, E. & Nystedt, P. (2018). Blowing up money? The earnings penalty of smoking in the 1970s and the 21st century. Journal of Health Economics, 60, 39-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blowing up money? The earnings penalty of smoking in the 1970s and the 21st century
2018 (English)In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 60, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze the earnings penalty of smoking among Swedish twins in two social contexts: the 1970s, when smoking was common and widely accepted and when there were relatively few tobacco laws aiming to reduce smoking; and the 2000s, when smoking had become more expensive, stigmatizing and less common, and when tobacco laws and regulations had intensified. The results show that the short-term earnings penalty of smoking was much higher in the 21st century than in the 1970s for men. For women, smokers had on average higher annual earnings compared to nonsmokers in the 1970s, but lower annual earnings in the 2000s. In the long run, there was an earnings gap for men between never-smokers and continuous smokers, whereas there was a pronounced earnings ‘bonus’ of smoking cessation for women. The results emphasize the importance of social context and the long-term horizon when evaluating the consequences of smoking for earnings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Smoking; Earnings; Social context; Twins
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-40411 (URN)10.1016/j.jhealeco.2018.05.003 (DOI)XYZ ()29909201 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048443732 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Lång, E. & Nystedt, P. (2018). Two by Two, Inch by Inch: Height as an Indicator of Environmental Conditions during Childhood and its Influence on Earnings over the Life Cycle among Twins. Economics and Human Biology, 28, 53-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two by Two, Inch by Inch: Height as an Indicator of Environmental Conditions during Childhood and its Influence on Earnings over the Life Cycle among Twins
2018 (English)In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 28, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adult height is a function of genetic predispositions and environmental influences during childhood. Hence, any variation in height among monozygotic twins, who share genetic predispositions, is bound to reflect differences in their environmental exposure. Therefore, a height premium in earnings among monozygotic twins also reflects such exposure. In this study, we analyze the height premium over the life cycle among Swedish twins, 10,000 of whom are monozygotic. The premium is relatively constant over the life cycle, amounting to 5–6% higher earnings per decimeter for men and less for women, suggesting that environmental conditions in childhood and youth affect earnings over most of the adult life course. The premium is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Height; Life Cycle Earnings; Childhood Environment; Genetics; Twins
National Category
Economics Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38025 (URN)10.1016/j.ehb.2017.12.001 (DOI)000426333100006 ()29288870 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85039422272 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Dribe, M. & Nystedt, P. (2017). Age Homogamy, Gender, and Earnings: Sweden 1990-2009. Social Forces, 96(1), 239-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age Homogamy, Gender, and Earnings: Sweden 1990-2009
2017 (English)In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 239-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown considerable marriage premiums in earnings for men, but often penalties for women of being in a union. In this study we extend this research by analyzing how the age difference between spouses affects the earnings profiles by gender. As we follow people over time in advance as well as within their marriage, we can separate premarital from postmarital earnings movements. The data consist of information on annual earnings 1990-2009 for all Swedes born 1960-1974 (N = 926,219). The results indicate that age homogamy is related to higher earnings for both men and women, and that larger age differences are generally associated with lower union premiums, quite independently of which spouse is older. However, most of these results are explained by assortative mating, in which men and women with greater earnings potentials find partners of a similar age. Overall, the age difference between spouses seems to have a limited causal effect, if any, on individual earnings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
DIVISION-OF-LABOR; ECONOMIC ASSIMILATION; EDUCATIONAL HOMOGAMY; SWEDISH COUPLES; WAGE PENALTY; MARRIAGE; MOTHERHOOD; HOUSEWORK; FAMILY; WORK
National Category
Sociology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37385 (URN)10.1093/sf/sox030 (DOI)000409194400026 ()2-s2.0-85031778343 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Bjursell, C., Nystedt, P., Björklund, A. & Sternäng, O. (2017). Education level explains participation in work and education later in life. Educational gerontology, 43(10), 511-521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education level explains participation in work and education later in life
2017 (English)In: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A prolonged working life is crucial for sustaining social welfare and fiscal stability for countries facing ageing populations. The group of older adults is not homogeneous; however, differences within the group may affect the propensity to continue working and to participate in continuing education. The aim of this paper is to explore how participation in work and education vary with gender, age, and education level in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in Sweden, a context characterized by high female labour-market-participation rates and a high average retirement age. The participants were 232 members of four of the major senior citizens? organizations. We found no differences in participation in work and education based on gender. People older than 75 years were found to be as active as people 65?75 years old in education, but the older group worked less. There were positive associations between education level and participation in both work and education. Hence, this study implies that socio-economic inequalities along these dimensions are widened later in life. This highlights the importance of engaging workers with lower education levels in educational efforts throughout life. It also emphasizes the need for true lifelong learning in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37033 (URN)10.1080/03601277.2017.1357397 (DOI)000413908900004 ()2-s2.0-85028559458 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Gerdtham, U.-G., Lundborg, P., Lyttkens, C. H. & Nystedt, P. (2016). Do education and income really explain inequalities in health? Applying a twin design. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 118(1), 25-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do education and income really explain inequalities in health? Applying a twin design
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 25-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We apply a twin design to examine the relationship between health and education andincome. The estimated associations between health and education and income, controlling forunobserved endowments, at the twin-pair level, are lower than estimates obtained via ordinaryleast-squares (OLS) on the same sample. Thus, OLS-based effects of education and incomeare biased, exaggerating the contribution of education and income to health inequality. Themain part of health inequality is explained by within-twin-pair fixed effects, incorporatingfamily background and genetic inheritance. It appears that education and income policieshave less to offer for reducing health inequality than is usually assumed.

Keywords
Education, health inequality, income, twins
National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28749 (URN)10.1111/sjoe.12130 (DOI)000372923800002 ()2-s2.0-84946433592 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lång, E. & Nystedt, P. (2016). Learning for life? The effects of schooling on earnings and health-related behavior over the life cycle. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning for life? The effects of schooling on earnings and health-related behavior over the life cycle
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyze how education is associated with earnings and health-related behaviors (HRBs) over the adult life cycle using a sample of 18,000 twins. The underlying motive is to improve the understanding of to what extent schooling may contribute to increased human welfare over time and age through the intermediaries of earnings and HRBs. We find that one additional year of schooling is associated with around 5-6 percent higher earnings at ages 35-75 and generally improved HRBs for both men and women. Much of the estimated relationships between schooling, earnings and HRBs can be traced back to genetic inheritance. Controlling for such inheritance, the remaining education -earnings premium is non-linear and increasing with educational level, and the education premium in HRBs is mainly concentrated to smoking habits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 57
Series
Linköping University Working Papers in Economics ; 2016:4
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-34663 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
Lundborg, P., Lyttkens, C. H. & Nystedt, P. (2016). The effect of schooling on mortality: New evidence from 50,000 Swedish twins. Demography, 53(4), 1135-1168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of schooling on mortality: New evidence from 50,000 Swedish twins
2016 (English)In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1135-1168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By using historical data on about 50,000 twins born in Sweden during 1886–1958, we demonstrate a positive and statistically significant relationship between years of schooling and longevity. This relation remains almost unchanged when exploiting a twin fixed-effects design to control for the influence of genetics and shared family background. This result is robust to controlling for within-twin-pair differences in early-life health and cognitive ability, as proxied by birth weight and height, as well as to restricting the sample to MZ twins. The relationship is fairly constant over time but becomes weaker with age. Literally, our results suggest that compared with low levels of schooling (less than 10 years), high levels of schooling (at least 13 years of schooling) are associated with about three years longer life expectancy at age 60 for the considered birth cohorts. The real societal value of schooling may hence extend beyond pure labor market and economic growth returns. From a policy perspective, schooling may therefore be a vehicle for improving longevity and health, as well as equality along these dimensions.

Keywords
Longevity, Mortality, Schooling, Stratified partial likelihood, Twins
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-31237 (URN)10.1007/s13524-016-0489-3 (DOI)000382995700011 ()27393233 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84978035999 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Lång, E. & Nystedt, P. (2015). Does tallness pay off in the long run? Height and earnings over the life cycle. In: : . Paper presented at Population Association of America (PAA) 2015 Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, April 30 - May 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does tallness pay off in the long run? Height and earnings over the life cycle
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using data on approximately 30,000 dizygotic and monozygotic twins born in Sweden 1918-58, we analyze how the height premium in earnings develops over the adult lifespan. Overall, the unconditional estimated premium increases with age for men and decreases for women. For men, within twin-pair fixed effects (WTP) estimates are on average about 40 percent lower than the corresponding unconditional OLS estimates. Including years of schooling as an explanatory variable induces a similar reduction (about 40 percent) of the estimated OLS height premium, but has no effect whatsoever on the WTP estimates, implying that the OLS and WTP estimates tend to coincide. Hence, it seems as if schooling mediates the association between height and earnings among unrelated male individuals but not among twins. For women, the estimations are less precise, but limiting the sample to those with earnings above a threshold level mirroring half time earnings at a very low wage level, the estimated OLS and WTP premiums are rather constant with age. This indicates that, for women, the unconditional premiums may well be influenced by height-related variation in labor market participation. Overall, the height premium patterns do not vary substantially between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences affect earning levels similarly.

National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-34662 (URN)
Conference
Population Association of America (PAA) 2015 Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, April 30 - May 2
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
Dribe, M. & Nystedt, P. (2015). Is there an intermarriage premium for male immigrants? Exogamy and earnings in Sweden 1990–2009. The international migration review, 49(1), 3-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there an intermarriage premium for male immigrants? Exogamy and earnings in Sweden 1990–2009
2015 (English)In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 3-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the impact of intermarriage on the economic integration of immigrants in Sweden, measured by annual earnings. We use longitudinal register data for the period 1990–2009 for the total population of immigrant men born 1960–1974. The results reveal large intermarriage premiums, but overall this seems to be a result of selection effects as most of the premium is visible already at the time of marriage. For the most economically marginalized immigrants, however, an intermarriage premium arises within marriage implying that forming a union with a native triggers a more rapid earnings growth among them.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-25537 (URN)10.1111/imre.12081 (DOI)000351774400001 ()2-s2.0-84925724217 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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