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Larsen, L. B., Ramstrand, N. & Tranberg, R. (2019). Duty belt or load-bearing vest? Discomfort and pressure distribution for police driving standard fleet vehicles. Applied Ergonomics, 80, 146-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Duty belt or load-bearing vest? Discomfort and pressure distribution for police driving standard fleet vehicles
2019 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 80, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Police working in active duty have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, with lower back pain being the most frequently reported. As a part of uniform regulations, Swedish police are mandated to wear body armour and duty belts at all times during work. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different load carriage designs on in-vehicle sitting pressure and self-rated discomfort among police. Results showed less discomfort when wearing the alternate load carriage system incorporating a load-bearing vest and thigh holster compared to the standard load carriage system consisting of a duty belt. Pressures in the lower back were reduced when wearing the load-bearing vest whereas pressures in the upper back region increased. Relocating appointments away from the waist has the potential to improve sitting positions and the ergonomic situation for police when driving fleet vehicles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Driving, Law enforcement, Lower back, Occupational health, Protective equipment
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39059 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2019.05.017 (DOI)000477687200017 ()31280798 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066295219 (Scopus ID)PP HHJ 2019 embargo 24 (Local ID)PP HHJ 2019 embargo 24 (Archive number)PP HHJ 2019 embargo 24 (OAI)
Note

Included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Larsen, L. B., Ramstrand, N. & Fransson, E. I. (2019). Psychosocial job demand and control: multi-site musculoskeletal pain in Swedish police. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 47(3), 318-325
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial job demand and control: multi-site musculoskeletal pain in Swedish police
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims

Police have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. While physical factors contributing to this have been explored, little is known regarding the contribution of the psychosocial work environment. This study explores the association between elements of the JDC model, social support and multi-site musculoskeletal pain among Swedish police.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, response from 4185 police were collected using a self-administered online survey. The survey included questions on psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal pain, as well as several potential confounding factors. Binominal regression analyses were performed to explore the degree of association between 1) the indices for job demands, job control, social support and multi-site musculoskeletal pain and 2) the four categories of the JDC model, social support and multi-site musculoskeletal pain.

Results

The overall psychosocial work environment of Swedish police was characterised by low control and high social support. Police who reported active and high strain jobs were found to have an increase in the odds ratio for multi-site musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.08-1.94), and 1.84 (1.51-2.24) respectively). High demands, which is a component in the categories for active and high strain jobs, was also found to be associated with an increase in the odds ratio for multi-site musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.66 (1.45-1.91)). High social support was associated with a decrease in the odds ratio formulti-site musculoskeletal pain (OR 0.72 (0.57-0.86)).

Conclusions

Psychosocial work environment should be considered when investigating factors related to the health and wellbeing of police.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
JDC model; Law enforcement; Musculoskeletal disorders; Occupational epidemiology; SWES
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39058 (URN)10.1177/1403494818801507 (DOI)000466373100005 ()30253688 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059702282 (Scopus ID)
Note

Included in thesis in its submitted form

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Larsen, L. B. (2018). Factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in Swedish police. (Doctoral dissertation). Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in Swedish police
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Police working in active duty are subject to occupation-specific exposures in the workplace which could place them at an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. These exposures include the requirement to wear a duty belt and body armour as well as sitting for long periods in fleet vehicles. It is well recognised that the development of musculoskeletal disorders is multifactorial and that both physical and psychosocial workplace factors must be considered when addressing this issue.

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge related to musculoskeletal disorders in Swedish police by exploring the prevalence of pain and its relationship to physical and psychosocial factors in the work environment.

Methods: Studies included in this thesis were conducted using different quantitative methods. Studies I and II were based on data from a self-administered online survey, distributed to all police officers working in active duty. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to document the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and the effects of exposure variables (physical and psychosocial) and covariates on multi-site pain. Study III was conducted using a three-dimensional gait analysis system incorporating two force plates to explore the effect of different load carriage systems on kinematic and kinetic variables. Study IV included the same three conditions as in Study III but investigated sitting postures and comfort. A pressure mat was utilised to determine contact pressure and contact area while sitting in and driving police vehicles while a survey was used to measure experienced discomfort related to the vehicle seat. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences between load carriage conditions in Studies III and IV.

Results: The results of this thesis revealed that the most frequently reported musculoskeletal disorder among Swedish police working in active duty was lower back pain (43.2%) and that multi-site musculoskeletal pain (41.3%) was twice as prevalent as single-site pain (19.7 The physical workplace factor with the greatest association to multi-site musculoskeletal pain was found for individuals reporting discomfort experienced from wearing duty belts (OR 5.42 (95% CI 4.56 – 6.43)). The psychosocial workplace factor with the greatest association to multi-site musculoskeletal pain was found for individuals reporting high-strain jobs (OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.51 – 2.24)). Wearing body armour, or body armour combined with a load-bearing vest, resulted in less rotation of the trunk when compared to not wearing any equipment. Wearing a thigh holster and load-bearing vest allowed for a greater range of rotation in the right hip compared to the standard load-bearing condition, which incorporated a belt-mounted hip holster. Kinetics of the ankle joints were greater for both load carriage conditions compared to the control condition. Discomfort ratings revealed a clear preference for the alternate load-carriage condition. The lower back was found to be the body region with most experienced discomfort (30.5; IQR 11 - 42 mm). Pressure data demonstrated that wearing a thigh holster and load-bearing vest resulted in less pressure in the lower back when compared to the standard load carriage condition. At the same time, contact pressure in the upper back increased followed by a decrease in contact area.

Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is a considerable problem among Swedish police with lower back pain being the most frequently reported pain site. Multi-site musculoskeletal pain was found to be more common than single-site pain and both physical and psychosocial factors were associated to multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Of the exposures studied in this thesis, duty belts and high strain jobs were found to have the greatest association to musculoskeletal pain. The use of load-bearing vest and thigh holster were found to affect levels of discomfort, especially while driving. Also, range of motion in the trunk and right hip was affected by wearing mandatory equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, 2018. p. 80
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 088
Keywords
Load carriage, Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational health, Police
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39061 (URN)978-91-85835-87-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-27, Forum Humanum, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Larsen, L. B., Elgmark Andersson, E., Tranberg, R. & Ramstrand, N. (2018). Multi-site musculoskeletal pain in Swedish police: associations with discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and prolonged sitting. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 91(4), 425--433
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-site musculoskeletal pain in Swedish police: associations with discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and prolonged sitting
2018 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 425--433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as a major issue affecting the health and well-being of active duty police. Discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and sitting for long periods of time in fleet vehicles are workload factors linked to musculoskeletal disorders in police. This study aims to determine the prevalence of multi-site musculoskeletal pain among Swedish police and to explore the possible association to discomfort experience when wearing mandatory equipment and sitting for long periods in fleet vehicles.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study responses from 4185 police were collected through a self-administered online survey including questions about physical work environment, mandatory equipment and musculoskeletal pain. Multi-site pain was determined through summing pain sites from four body regions. Binomial logistic regression was performed to explore the association between multi-site musculoskeletal pain: (1) discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and (2) sitting for long periods in fleet vehicles.

Results: The prevalence of multi-site musculoskeletal pain at least 1 day per week within the previous 3 months was 41.3%. A statistically significant association between discomfort from wearing mandatory equipment and multi-site musculoskeletal pain was found; duty belt [OR 5.42 (95% CI 4.56–6.43)] as well as body armour [OR 2.69 (95% CI 2.11–3.42)]. Sitting for long periods in fleet vehicles was not significantly associated to multi-site musculoskeletal pain.

Conclusion: Multi-site musculoskeletal pain is a considerable problem among Swedish police and modifying mandatory equipment to decrease discomfort is suggested as a potential means of decreasing the musculoskeletal pain experienced by many police officers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Body armour, Cross-sectional study, Duty belt, Law enforcement, Multi-site musculoskeletal pain
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38891 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1292-9 (DOI)000430467900006 ()29411113 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041609300 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Elgmark Andersson, E., Larsen, L. B. & Ramstrand, N. (2017). A modified Job Demand, Control, Support model for active duty police. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 58(3), 361-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A modified Job Demand, Control, Support model for active duty police
2017 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The Job Demand Control Support model (JDCS) is one of the most widely used theoretical models relating job characteristics to health and wellbeing.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictive power of the JDCS model for determining job satisfaction and fatigue in uniformed Swedish police. An additional aim was to determine if predictive power of the model would be improved with the addition of two occupation specific items.

METHODS: Questionnaire data, based upon the Swedish Work Environment Survey were collected from Swedish police (n = 4244). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was run to explore the predictive value of the model and to determine if the additional variables improved predictive power with respect to job satisfaction and fatigue.

RESULTS: Regression analysis demonstrated that the JDSC model had high predictive power in relation to job satisfaction and fatigue. Job demands was the strongest predictor of fatigue (14%), while support was the strongest predictor of job satisfaction (12%). The addition of exposure to threats significantly improved predictive power for both job satisfaction and fatigue, while addition of shift work did not significantly affect predictive power of the model.

CONCLUSIONS: Workplace interventions to address issues related to job satisfaction and fatigue in police should focus on maintaining a bearable level of job demands and provision of adequate support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2017
Keywords
Fatigue, health, occupation, psychosocial, work
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38245 (URN)10.3233/WOR-172621 (DOI)000415102200012 ()29036868 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85034449316 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Larsen, L. B., Tranberg, R. & Ramstrand, N. (2016). Effects of thigh holster use on kinematics and kinetics of active duty police officers. Clinical Biomechanics, 37, 77-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of thigh holster use on kinematics and kinetics of active duty police officers
2016 (English)In: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 37, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Body armour, duty belts and belt mounted holsters are standard equipment used by the Swedish police and have been shown to affect performance of police specific tasks, to decrease mobility and to potentially influence back pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects on gait kinematics and kinetics associated with use of an alternate load carriage system incorporating a thigh holster.

Methods: Kinematic, kinetic and temporospatial data were collected using three dimensional gait analysis. Walking tests were conducted with nineteen active duty police officers under three different load carriage conditions: a) body armour and duty belt, b) load bearing vest, body armour and thigh holster and c) no equipment (control).

Findings: No significant differences between testing conditions were found for temporospatial parameters. Range of trunk rotation was reduced for both load carriage conditions compared to the control condition (p < 0.017). Range of hip rotation was more similar to the control condition when wearing thigh holster rather than the belt mounted hip holster (p < 0.017). Moments and powers for both left and right ankles were significantly greater for both of the load carriage conditions compared to the control condition (p < 0.017).

Interpretation: This study confirms that occupational loads carried by police have a significant effect on gait kinematics and kinetics. Although small differences were observed between the two load carriage conditions investigated in this study, results do not overwhelmingly support selection of one design over the other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Gait analysis, Kinematics, Kinetics, Load carriage, Police, Thigh holster, Armor, Enzyme kinetics, Effect on gaits, Gait kinematics, Police officers, Specific tasks, Standard equipments, Testing conditions, Law enforcement
National Category
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-31264 (URN)10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2016.06.009 (DOI)000382798500012 ()27380202 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84976884549 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Ramstrand, N., Zügner, R., Bæk Larsen, L. & Tranberg, R. (2016). Evaluation of load carriage systems used by active duty police officers: Relative effects on walking patterns and perceived comfort. Applied Ergonomics, 53(Part A), 36-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of load carriage systems used by active duty police officers: Relative effects on walking patterns and perceived comfort
2016 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 53, no Part A, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of two different load carriage systems on gait kinematics, temporospatial gait parameters and self-reported comfort in Swedish police.

Methods: 21 active duty police officers were recruited for this crossover study design. Biomechanical and self-report data was collected on two testing occasions. On occasion 1, three dimensional kinematic data was collected while police wore a/no equipment (control), b/their standard issues belt and ballistic protection vest and c/a load bearing vest with ballistic protection vest. Police then wore the load bearing vest for a minimum of 3 months before the second testing occasion.

Results: The load bearing vest was associated with a significant reduction in range of motion of the trunk,´pelvis and hip joints. Biomechanical changes associated with the load bearing vest appeared to reduce with increased wear time. In both the standard issue belt condition and the load bearing vest condition, police walked with the arms held in a significantly greater degree of abduction. Self-report data indicated a preference for the load bearing vest.

Conclusion: The two load carriage designs tested in this study were found to significantly alter gait kinematics.

The load bearing vest design was associated with the greatest number of kinematic compensations however these reduced over time as police became more accustomed to the design. Results from this study do not support selection of one load carriage design over the other and providing individuals with the option to choose a load carriage design is considered appropriate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Police, load bearing vest, ergonomics, kinematics, law enforcement
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28042 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2015.08.007 (DOI)000367776200005 ()26674402 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84953878682 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-09-25 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Baek Larsen, L., Elgmark Andersson, E., Tranberg, R. & Ramstrand, N. (2014). Jämförande studie av Svensk polis rörelseförmåga vid användandet av bål och/eller bäcken fixerad utrustning. Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jämförande studie av Svensk polis rörelseförmåga vid användandet av bål och/eller bäcken fixerad utrustning
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Under det senaste decenniet har det blivit allt vanligare med arbetsrelaterade besvär hos uniformerad polis i yttre tjänst, främst är det besvär från nedre delen av ryggen som uppgetts. Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping har fått i uppdrag av Rikspolisstyrelsen att belysa och utreda den uppkomna problematiken. Två tidigare rapporter, Polisens fysiska arbetsmiljö och Polisens psykosociala miljö, har presenterats. I rapporten om polisens fysiska arbetsmiljö framkom en hög förekomst av besvär från muskler och leder, främst nedre delen av ryggen under förhållande med bärande av utrustningsbältet i kombination med mycket stillasittande i tjänstebilar. I den andra rapporten framkom att en stor del av poliserna arbetar treskift och i många fall långa arbetspass, vilket yttrar sig i att de har svårt att psykiskt återhämta sig, inte har tid för familj och vänner samt att de ofta upplever sig trötta. I den tredje och sammanfattande rapporten presenteras vilka bakomliggande variabler som påverkar den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön.

Syftet med studien var att analysera vilka variabler och vilka kombinationer av variabler som påverkar den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön för uniformerad polis i yttre tjänst i Sverige. Rapporten baseras på 4244 enkätsvar från poliser i yttre uniformerad tjänst.

Resultatet från föreliggande studie har visat att det finns skillnaden i besvärsfrekvens mellan myndigheterna när det gäller otillräcklig fysisk och psykisk återhämtning samt besvär ifrån nedre delen av ryggen. Orsakerna till skillnaden mellan myndigheterna är inte utredda. Studien har visat att besvärsfrekvensen ökar då det föreligger krav att arbeta på ett rullande treskiftsschema. Utifrån detta föreslår vi att man:

• utför benchmarking av polismyndigheter för att öka förståelsen för de stora skillnader som förekommer

• utvärderar olika modeller av schemaläggning avseende treskift

• fortsätter arbetet med att utreda hur polisens uniform och kroppsburna utrustning, i kombination med bilsätets utformning, påverkar besvär från nedre delen av ryggen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, 2014. p. 20
Series
Polisens arbetsmiljö 2013 ; 3
Keywords
Police, load bearing vest, kinematics, back pain, work environment
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24834 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Elgmark Andersson, E., Baek Larsen, L., Tranberg, R. & Ramstrand, N. (2014). Psykosociala aspekter. Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psykosociala aspekter
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, 2014. p. 41
Series
Polisens arbetsmiljö 2013 ; 2
Keywords
Police, work environment, psychosocial
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24835 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Elgmark Andersson, E., Baek Larsen, L., Tranberg, R. & Ramstrand, N. (2013). Fysiska aspekter. Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysiska aspekter
2013 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, 2013. p. 30
Series
Polisens arbetsmiljö 2013 ; 1
Keywords
Police work environment, physical work environment
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24836 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7389-7080

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