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Adolfsson, M., Sjöman, M. & Björck-Åkesson, E. (2018). ICF-CY as a Framework for Understanding Child Engagement in Preschool. Frontiers in Education, 3, Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICF-CY as a Framework for Understanding Child Engagement in Preschool
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Engagement in preschool predicts children's development, learning, and wellbeing in later school years. The time children engage in activities and social interactions is conditional for preschool inclusion. Engagement is part of the construct participation, which is determined by attendance and involvement. Two suggested underlying dimensions of engagement had been identified as essential when assessing children's participation in preschool activities. As engagement is a key question in inclusion of all children, and preschool becomes a common context for them, it is increasingly important to understand the concept of engagement in those settings. In Sweden most children attend preschool but children in need of special support tend not to receive enough support for their everyday functioning. This study aimed to conceptualize child engagement in preschool with ICF-CY as a framework to clarify core and developmental engagement dimensions included in Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ). The content of CEQ was identified through linking processes based on ICF linking rules with some exceptions. Specific challenges and solutions were acknowledged. To identify engagement dimensions in the ICF-CY, CEQ items related to ICF-CY chapters were integrated in the two-dimensional model of engagement. Findings showed that engagement measured for preschool ages was mostly related to Learning and Applying knowledge belonging to Activities and Participation but the linkage detected missing areas. Broader perspectives of children's everyday functioning require extended assessment with consideration to mutual influences between activities, participation, body functions, and contextual factors. Related to core and developmental engagement, findings highlight the importance for preschool staff to pay attention to how children do things, not only what they do. Activities related to core engagement include basic skills; those related to developmental engagement set higher demands on the child. Linking challenges related to preschool context were not consistent with those reported for child health. Using the ICF-CY as a framework with a common language may lead to open discussions among persons around the child, clarify the different perspectives and knowledges of the persons, and facilitate decisions on how to implement support to a child in everyday life situations in preschool and at home.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
children, core engagement, developmental engagement, ICF-CY, learning, participation, preschool, special support
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39833 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2018.00036 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Sjöman, M. (2018). Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support. (Doctoral dissertation). Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding engagement among children with and without need of special support due to behavior difficulties. The influence of social interaction as well as the provision of special support in Swedish preschool were investigated. Specifically, the aim was to explore children’s engagement at the nodal point between environmental factors, children’s behavior and characteristics, peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness, both in a cross-sectional perspective and over time. In addition, predictive factors for special support were explored.

A prospective longitudinal survey design with three data points was used, with both quantitative and qualitative data. The sample consisted of 829 children, 425 boys and 394 girls (10 missing) from 92 preschool units in six municipalities in Sweden. The children participated in at least one wave of data collection. The preschool staff rated the children’s engagement, behavior difficulties, and the provision of special support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. For the cross-sectional analyses 663 children participated, and for the longitudinal analyses, 203 children participated. For the cross-sectional analyses logistics regression and content analyses as well as mediation analyses were used, meanwhile, structural equation models were used for longitudinal analyses, that is, growth curve model with multivariate analyses as well as autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses.

Overall, children with high levels of hyperactive behavior were less engaged in everyday activities in preschool. In addition, the peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness were rated lower for these children, both in current time and longitudinally. Children’s hyperactive behavior had more negative influence on their core engagement (e.g. attentional behavior and persistence behavior), compared to their developmental engagement, (e.g.problem solving, involvement in complex rule-based play, more common for older preschoolers). The levels of social interaction explained a large percent of the negative effect between hyperactive behavior and engagement. Peer-to-child interaction explained between 56-78 percent, whereas teacher responsiveness explained between 33-34 percent.

Over time, the level of hyperactive behavior decreased more dramatically for girls than for boys. However, boys who became more engaged, showed less hyperactive behavior over time. The majority (63%) of the children displaying behavior difficulties (BD) did not receive special support on top of what was provided to all children in the classroom. No support was related to children being a second language learner in Swedish (EL2) or BDs that did not disturb the peer group or the teachers. Children more often received special support if the staff perceived the child’s behavior difficulties as disruptive in preschool activities or among peers. The most common type of support, mentioned by the staff, was paying attention to the child’s negative behavior, achieved by at least one member of the staff staying close to the child. Other examples of attention to the child’s negative behavior involved the preschool staff providing special support by paying attention to critical situations, by teacher’s proximity to the children, or by distracting the child from situations that could trigger negative behavior. Distractions were used more often for children with high engagement and BD.

Concerning directional and transactional paths, children’s core engagement was a significant predictor for both peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness. That is, high levels of core engagement at T1 predicted both types of social interaction at T2, which in turn predicted children’s levels of core engagement at T3. Children’s hyperactive behavior did not predict lower ratings in social interactions in preschool over time, whereas, high ratings in peer-to-child interactions and teacher responsiveness were significant predictors for decreased hyperactive behavior over time. Once again, social interactions were important factors for promoting a decrease in children’s hyperactive behavior. Children with high levels of core engagement were more likely to be met by teacher responsiveness and positive peer-to-child interactions over time.

Several statistical relations exist between children’s engagement, BD, social interactions and special support in preschool settings. This thesis shows that perceived negative behaviors such as BD can co-exist with more positively perceived behaviors or characteristics, such as engagement. However, this research shows that well-functioning peer-to-child interaction and teacher interactions improve child engagement for children with hyperactive behavior, special support is not always provided and seldom focused on improving children’s engagement. In order to improve engagement among children in need of special support due to BD, it is necessary to consider both hyperactive behavior and engagement as well as the influence of social interactions. Teacher responsiveness and peer-to-child interaction may work as supportive factors for children with hyperactive behavior to help sustain attention and stay actively engaged in the activities. Preschool teachers need to self-reflect on their organization, planning ofeveryday activities and how to design special support that consider individual children’s needs for improving their engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, 2018. p. 125
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar från Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, ISSN 1652-7933 ; 034
Series
Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 90
Keywords
preschool, engagement, hyperactive behavior, teacher responsiveness, peer-to-child interaction, Bioecological Systems Theory, niches, proximal processes, environmental factors, cross-sectional, transactional processes, longitudinal design
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38880 (URN)978-91-88339-12-6 (ISBN)978-91-88339-13-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-16, Hc113, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Almqvist, L., Sjöman, M., Golsäter, M. & Granlund, M. (2018). Special support for behavior difficulties and engagement in Swedish preschools. Frontiers in Education, 3, Article ID 35.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special support for behavior difficulties and engagement in Swedish preschools
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 3, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish preschool curriculum stipulates that all children independent of support needs should attend mainstream preschool groups, with equal opportunities for learning and engagement. Preschool teachers are responsible for paying attention to children in need of special support to achieve this. How support is provided for children in need of special support due to behavior difficulties in Swedish preschools varies, however. Some children, often formally identified as in need of special support, are supported by preschool staff supervised by external services. Other children receive support initiated and implemented by preschool staff, without supervision from external services. A further number of children receive no support for behavior difficulties, on top of what is provided to all children. This study investigated associations between support format (i.e. supervised support, staff-initiated support or no additional support), support content (i.e. implementation of support), behavior difficulties, socio-demographics and engagement. A mixed methods approach was used with a sample of 232 preschool children 15 to 71 months with assessed behavior difficulties. Preschool staff reported on the children's engagement, behavior difficulties, socio-demographics and support provision. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the probability of children receiving either support format. Content analysis was used to categorize the support content, reported by preschool staff through open-ended questions. Point-biserial correlations were used to test associations between support content, behavior, socio-demographics and engagement. All children receiving supervised support for behavior difficulties were formally identified by external services as in need of special support. Supervised support was also more common if children disturbed the free play in the preschool group, with the most frequent support being collaboration with external teams. Staff-initiated support was most commonly given to children with high engagement, and for children who are not early second language learners. These children were most frequently supported by staff paying attention to negative behavior. Children who were not perceived as a burden to the group were less likely to receive any form of additional support. Ways of managing the preschool group seem to guide support strategies for children with behavior difficulties, rather than child-focused strategies emphasizing engagement in everyday activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
special support, preschool, behavior difficulties, engagement, support format, support content, supervised support, staff-initiated support
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39517 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2018.00035 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, 2011/491Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013/38
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
Sjöman, M., Granlund, M. & Almqvist, L. (2016). Interaction processes as a mediating factor between children's externalized behaviour difficulties and engagement in preschool. Early Child Development and Care, 186(10), 1649-1663
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction processes as a mediating factor between children's externalized behaviour difficulties and engagement in preschool
2016 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 186, no 10, p. 1649-1663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18–71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated that behaviour difficulties and engagement may occur simultaneously. Hyperactivity had a direct negative influence on engagement, which was not the case with conduct problems. Teachers’ responsiveness as well as positive interactions with peers had an indirect influence on the relationship between hyperactivity and engagement. Responsive staff and positive interactions within the child group seem to contribute to children's engagement despite hyperactivity. Children's engagement, as well as special support to stimulate engagement in preschool, is discussed.

Keywords
Preschool, engagement, hyperactivity, conduct problems, social interactions
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-29328 (URN)10.1080/03004430.2015.1121251 (DOI)000384209300010 ()2-s2.0-84958046715 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Early detection and early intervention - a longitudinal study of children's engagement and behavior problems in Swedish preschool environments
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Almqvist, L., Sjöman, M., Golsäter, M. & Granlund, M.Children’s behavior difficulties and staff-implemented special support in Swedish preschools: Emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s behavior difficulties and staff-implemented special support in Swedish preschools: Emotional and behavioral difficulties
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Pediatrics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38877 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-20
Sjöman, M., Granlund, M., Axelsson, A., Almqvist, L. & Danielsson, H.Social interactions - predictor of children’s engagement and hyperactivity in preschool.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social interactions - predictor of children’s engagement and hyperactivity in preschool
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Pediatrics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38878 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-20
Sjöman, M.Social interactions and change in children’s engagement and externalizing behavior difficulties in preschool.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social interactions and change in children’s engagement and externalizing behavior difficulties in preschool
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Pediatrics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38879 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-20
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6172-3876

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