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Heshmati, A., Tsionas, M. & Rashidghalam, M. (2023). An assessment of the Swedish health system’s efficiency during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 16(3), 336-352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An assessment of the Swedish health system’s efficiency during the Covid-19 pandemic
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Healthcare Management, ISSN 2047-9700, E-ISSN 2047-9719, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 336-352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Countries’ success in managing the Covid-19 pandemic was independent of their level of education or development and institutional quality. Similarly, different provinces in countries performed differently as compared to their neighboring provinces and the country. This study assesses the efficiency of Sweden’s different municipalities in managing the Covid-19 pandemic. Its aim is determining whether the relative efficiency of Sweden’s primary healthcare system during the Covid-19 pandemic was different in different in regions and whether the regions can learn from each other to improve their efficiency in the provision of healthcare in the future. Performance is measured as efficiency in keeping the number of infected cases and deaths low. We use a data envelopment analysis for measuring efficiency. Variations in the level of efficiency are attributed to the differences in the municipalities’ demography, population concentration, economic and industrial structures, labor markets, geographic locations, and national and local policies during the pandemic. The empirical part is based on a panel of the population of 290 Swedish municipalities observed on a weekly basis during April 2020 to February 2021. The results show large variations in municipalities’ performance that can, to some extent, be attributed to their observable socioeconomic, locational, and demographic characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Covid-19 pandemic, data envelopment analysis, municipalities, Productivity and competitiveness, Sweden
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58181 (URN)10.1080/20479700.2022.2102184 (DOI)000836076100001 ()2-s2.0-85135528066 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;825129 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;825129 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;825129 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-08-15 Created: 2022-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Khezri, M., Mamghaderi, M., Razzaghi, S. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Index of Ecological Footprint. Environmental Management, 71, 465-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Index of Ecological Footprint
2023 (English)In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 71, p. 465-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research literature on assessing environmental efficiency by introducing a new key performance indicator (KPIs) in more complete and dependable aspects of ecological footprint indices. For this purpose, the DEA model considering three inputs (energy consumption, labor force, and capital stock), one desirable output (GDP), and different undesirable outputs (CO2 emissions, ecological footprint indicators) are applied to 27 OECD countries from 2000 to 2017. According to the results, Norway, Luxemburg, and United Kingdom are the most environmentally efficient countries in terms of environmental efficiency and ecological footprint efficiency. On the other hand, the lowest environmental and ecological footprint efficiencies were in countries like Lithuania, Slovak, Czech, Estonia, and the USA. In addition, these nations fare poorly regarding their carbon footprint and farmland efficiency. In further detail, Lithuania, South Korea, Portugal, and Spain have a critical status in fishing ground efficiency, while the forest area efficiency is very acute in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Czech.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Environmental Performance, Ecological footprint, KPI, DEA, OECD Countries
National Category
Environmental Management Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59017 (URN)10.1007/s00267-022-01747-z (DOI)000884961500001 ()36396858 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142152324 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;845125 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;845125 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;845125 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2023-02-17Bibliographically approved
Tsionas, M., Martins, M. A. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Effects of the vaccination and public support on covid-19 cases and number of deaths in Sweden. Operational Research, 23(3), Article ID 53.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of the vaccination and public support on covid-19 cases and number of deaths in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Operational Research, ISSN 1109-2858, E-ISSN 1866-1505, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are large variations between and within countries’ performance in coping with the Covid-19 pandemic. This study assesses the efficiency of different provinces in Sweden in managing the pandemic. Its objective to estimate the relative efficiency of provinces during the pandemic and identify the key determinants of the level and variations in their performance. Performance is measured as efficiency in keeping the number of negative outcomes low and the number of positive outcomes high for given resources. It uses a parametric distance function approach with multi-input, multi-output, and a flexible functional form for estimating the provinces’ efficiency and the variations in this efficiency over time. Variations in their performance are attributed to the observable characteristics of their socioeconomic, locational, demographic, and healthcare resources. The empirical part is based on a panel data of the population in 21 provinces observed on a weekly basis from January 2020 to September 2021. In particular, the paper estimates the effects of public support and vaccinations on a reduction in the number of deaths and the spread of new cases. The level and variations in outcomes are explained by various provinces and local and national policies. The results show large variations in provinces’ performance and their persistence/transitory nature attributed to their observable characteristics. The paper suggests some policy recommendations to help cope with the threat of the pandemic post the removal of restrictions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Covid-19, OR in health services, Performance analysis, Public support, Vaccinations
National Category
Economics Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62332 (URN)10.1007/s12351-023-00794-6 (DOI)001048678900001 ()2-s2.0-85168365336 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;899882 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;899882 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;899882 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-29 Created: 2023-08-29 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Heshmati, A. & Tsionas, M. (2023). Green innovations and patents in OECD countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 418, Article ID 138092.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green innovations and patents in OECD countries
2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 418, article id 138092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Green transition is important for the economics of the OECD countries and their transition to cleaner production. This paper estimates a knowledge production function consisting of a system of innovation inputs, innovation outputs, and productivity with feedback effect from productivity on innovation investments. The model accounts for productivity shock, endogeneity of inputs, and their simultaneity and interdependence. Productivity shock is a latent unobserved component that is specified in terms of observable factors. The model is estimated using Bayesian methods organized around Marco Chain Sequential Monte Carlo iteration techniques also known as Particle Filtering. For the empirical part, the paper uses balanced panel data covering 27 OECD countries' green innovation and patents activities observed during the period 1990–2018. Our empirical results show evidence of significant heterogeneity in productivity and its relationship with its identified determinants. The paper also discusses the implications of these results for OECD countries’ green growth strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Bayesian method, Environmental policy, Green innovations, OECD, Panel data, Particle Gibbs sampler, Patents, Bayesian networks, Economics, Environmental protection, Monte Carlo methods, Patents and inventions, Pollution control, Bayesian methods, Gibbs samplers, OECD countries, Particle gibbs, Patent, Iterative methods
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62249 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.138092 (DOI)001050936700001 ()2-s2.0-85165966364 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;898077 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;898077 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;898077 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
Tsoy, L. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Impact of financial crises on the dynamics of capital structure: Evidence from Korean listed companies. Singapore Economic Review, 68(3), 867-898
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of financial crises on the dynamics of capital structure: Evidence from Korean listed companies
2023 (English)In: Singapore Economic Review, ISSN 0217-5908, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 867-898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2008 Global economic crisis on the capital structures of Korean non-financial listed companies. Using a panel data covering 1,159 Korean listed non-financial firms from 10 industrial sectors over a 31-year period (1985-2015), this study investigates the patterns of firms' capital structures before and after the crises and identifies their speeds of adjustment toward the optimal leverage. This study finds different effects of the two crises on both capital structures and adjustment speeds. The average debt ratio fell significantly after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The distance between the optimal and the observed debt ratios shrank after the Asian crisis, while the speed of adjustment increased two-fold. Unlike the Asian financial crisis, the global economic crisis of 2008 had a positive effect on companies' debt ratios and the speeds of adjustments toward the optimal leverage. Our empirical analysis shows that, on average, the Korean non-financial listed companies decreased their debt ratios over the entire period of observation, with the leverage being the highest before the Asian financial crisis and lowest after the global economic crisis. Our results also show that the debt ratios of Korean chaebols were higher than that of non-chaebols. Moreover, we find that the high level of leverage of Korean firms was associated with tangible assets, income variability, size and age of the firm, non-debt tax shield and uniqueness. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific, 2023
Keywords
Capital structure, chaebols, dynamic model, financial crises, Korean listed companies, optimal leverage, panel data, speed of adjustment
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-49287 (URN)10.1142/S0217590819500498 (DOI)001024752900010 ()2-s2.0-85072758651 (Scopus ID);intsam;1440506 (Local ID);intsam;1440506 (Archive number);intsam;1440506 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-06-15 Created: 2020-06-15 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mulugeta Habtewold, T. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Impacts of improved agricultural technologies on food security and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 9(2), Article ID 2276565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of improved agricultural technologies on food security and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia
2023 (English)In: Cogent Food and Agriculture, ISSN 2331-1932, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 2276565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New agricultural technologies and improved practices play a key role in increasing agricultural production and productivity, as well as improving national food security and overall social well-being. A large body of empirical literature shows how different technologies and improved practices can affect welfare indicators. However, rigorous evidence on the food security and nutritional implications of these technologies remains scarce in general and particularly in developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. This study uses panel data and adopts a fixed-effects approach as the main analysis method. Propensity score matching and endogenous treatment effects techniques are also used to test robustness and reduce selection bias in the estimation process. Thus, this study examines the relationship between adoption and nutrition, which has received little attention in most previous studies, and evaluates the impacts of three improved agricultural technologies (row planting, high-yielding seed varieties, and chemical fertilizers) on household food security and child nutrition. The results of the study show that the adoption of these technologies had a significant impact on both per capita consumption expenditure and child nutrition. In addition, the results of the differential impact analysis confirmed that impacts differed across the different segments of the households (quartiles based on area under improved technology and gender). We, thus, recommend the use of advanced agricultural technologies in combination (multiple types) rather than as separate technologies, and relevant institutions should promote the combination of advanced agricultural technologies, and the need for continued and large-scale public and private investment in the sector to address major development challenges. Finally, we note that the results from the current study have a broad and generic value that can be applied to a range of related cases in other developing countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
consumption expenditure, household welfare, impact evaluation, panel data, technology adoption
National Category
Economics Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62882 (URN)10.1080/23311932.2023.2276565 (DOI)001092939100001 ()2-s2.0-85175707217 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;915538 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;915538 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;915538 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Mulugeta, H. T. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Impacts of improved agricultural technology adoption on welfare in Africa: A meta-analysis. Heliyon, 9(7), Article ID e17463.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of improved agricultural technology adoption on welfare in Africa: A meta-analysis
2023 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e17463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A large body of researches have widely examined the impact of adopting improved agricultural practices and technologies on general welfare of smallholder farmers. The results of deep literature review show that varies agricultural technologies have significant impacts on different welfare measures identified in the primary studies. However, the estimated effects of technology adoption differ among studies. The current study presents a meta-analysis of empirical estimates using a sample of 52 studies that investigated the impact of improved agricultural technologies in Africa on three key sets of outcome variables: output or expenditure, food security, and poverty. The study also conducted tests for publication bias to see if researchers tend to report results in similar or different ways for the same outcome variable. The findings the study shed light on the ways of identifying potential factors explaining the differences in the effects of estimated technology adoption. Results of the meta-regression analysis revealed that differences in the reported impact of technologies is explained by factors like data type, model specification, sample size, region of the study, and journal type. It was also observed that no publication bias in the studies reviewed for the effect size measures of output (expenditure) and poverty models, but in the food security model there is some evidence of publication bias. One of the core implications of the current study is that, based on the sensitivity of effect sizes to study attributes (i.e. data type, econometric methods, sample size, region of the study, and journal type), interested researchers and academicians need to pay attention to these attributes to provide more reliable estimates for policy interventions. We believe this study provides information useful to interested decision-makers in designing policy intervention measures that could encourage the adoption of improved agricultural practices and technologies in the African context. Finally, the study also highlighted future research directions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Africa, Agriculture, Food security, Meta-analysis, Poverty, Technology adoption
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62119 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17463 (DOI)001040306200001 ()37455985 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85164017954 (Scopus ID)GOA;intsam;895955 (Local ID)GOA;intsam;895955 (Archive number)GOA;intsam;895955 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Tsoy, L. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Is FDI inflow bad for environmental sustainability?. Environment, Development and Sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is FDI inflow bad for environmental sustainability?
2023 (English)In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the last few years, discussions and debates around environmental sustainability have become a key goal of the global agenda. This is because the latest studies and our direct experiences of the consequences of environmental degradation and climate change are showing that economic models need some urgent changes. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) flow on environmental sustainability globally. The balanced panel data of 100 countries from 2000 to 2020 were used for empirical analysis to understand the relationship between FDI inflow and environmental performance index (EPI) for countries with different income levels. The estimation is made using the two-step system GMM model as it gives more robust and efficient results in this study. The results of the dynamic panel model do not support the pollution haven hypothesis, i.e., FDI inflow was not found to have any statistically significant effect on EPI. The findings of the paper suggest that to improve environmental quality globally, it is important for governments to invest more in renewable energy projects as clean energy consumption can be one of the most efficient solutions for reducing the impact of climate change. Moreover, countries need to reduce the unemployment rate as it significantly improves the environmental quality according to our estimation results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Clean energy, Environmental performance index, Foreign direct investment, GMM dynamic panel data model, Pollution haven hypothesis
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62509 (URN)10.1007/s10668-023-03844-3 (DOI)001061566400002 ()2-s2.0-85170062210 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;905655 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;905655 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;905655 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-10-17
Demir, A., Budur, T. & Heshmati, A. (2023). Links between knowledge management and organisational sustainability: Does the ISO 9001 certification have an effect?. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 21(1), 183-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Links between knowledge management and organisational sustainability: Does the ISO 9001 certification have an effect?
2023 (English)In: Knowledge Management Research & Practice, ISSN 1477-8238, E-ISSN 1477-8246, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study’s aim is investigating the impacts of the determinants of knowledge management on organisational sustainability. It investigates the differences in performance among ISO 9001 certified and non-certified firms. The study uses data collected from 156 employees of various private firms in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. It uses the partial least squares method to test the hypothesised model and the independent samples t-test toelaborate on the differences between ISO 9001 certified and non-certified firms. The results show that knowledge storage plays a key role in knowledge generation, sharing, and utilisation. It is also observed that knowledge management has a significant impact on organisational sustainability. Firms in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq fail to generate management knowledge due to their weak document storage capacities. This paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of their weak document storage capacities and makes some suggestions for improving this situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-51468 (URN)10.1080/14778238.2020.1860663 (DOI)000608514400001 ()2-s2.0-85099530989 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;1517022 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;1517022 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;1517022 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-01-13 Created: 2021-01-13 Last updated: 2023-02-21Bibliographically approved
Heshmati, A. & Bersisa, M. (2023). Poverty in Africa. In: J. Silber (Ed.), Research Handbook on Measuring Poverty and Deprivation: (pp. 722-732). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poverty in Africa
2023 (English)In: Research Handbook on Measuring Poverty and Deprivation / [ed] J. Silber, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 722-732Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Africa is a land of contrasts where poverty and plenty co-exist. The continent is endowed with untapped natural resources, a conducive climate, and a burgeoning youth population. However, it remains home to a very large poor population. This chapter reviews the situation and drivers of poverty in Africa by using a number of approaches: a systematic literature review, a comparative analysis, and examining various case studies. The review indicates that there is poor economic performance and there is dire poverty measured by both the unidimensional and multidimensional poverty indices on the continent. Only Mauritius has a high level on the human development index while the rest of the countries stand at the medium and low levels of the human development index. The unidimensional poverty measure shows that 82.3 percent of South Sudan’s population is living below the poverty line while only 4.8 percent of Morocco’s population is poor. Similar figures are obtained from the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) measures. MPI is 0.003 for Seychelles and Tunisia and as high as 0.59 for Niger. Further, the study also shows that drivers of poverty in Africa go beyond socioeconomic, political, and institutional factors. Non-material elements like culture, social capital, and spiritual richness also determine the level of happiness in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023
Series
Elgar Handbooks in Development
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62093 (URN)2-s2.0-85162941295 (Scopus ID)9781800883444 (ISBN)9781800883451 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
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