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Björkman, B., Gimbler Berglund, I., Faresjö, M., Enskär, K. & Huus, K. (2017). Are radiographers prepared to meet children with special needs, when seen for an examination?. Paper presented at 62nd Nordic Congress of Radiology & 23rd Nordic Congress of Radiography. Acta Radiologica, 58(1 Suppl.), 16-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are radiographers prepared to meet children with special needs, when seen for an examination?
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2017 (English)In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 16-16Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Anxiety is often experienced by children undergoing health care procedures, and children with autism spectrum disorders (ADS) experience more anxiety than typically developed children. A prerequisite for obtaining an optimum procedure is firstly based on the health care provider’s knowledge about children with ASD, but may also depend on the use of guidelines. Two previous national surveys showed, that none radiology or paediatric departments and a minority of anaesthesiology departments throughout Sweden use specific guidelines when seeing children with ASD. Following, the purpose was to develop guidelines to use when caring for and preparing children with ASD in those settings.

Methods: A modified Delphi method was used, including19 experts identified from the two afore mentioned surveys. The questions considered in the process, proceeded from previous research and the results from the surveys. The experts’ responses regarding the importance of each item, were analysed and scrutinized between each round.

Results: The Delphi process resulted in guidelines consisting of 15 items and a checklist with 16 aspects. The items cover the areas: planning and involving parents, features in the environment, use of time, communication, thehealth care professionals. The checklist covers the child’spattern of communication, anxiety, sensory stimuli, special interests and likes/dislikes.

Conclusions: To obtain an optimum caring encounter when a child with ASD is seen in the preoperative and radiology setting, a meticulous planning is important and the environment should be adjusted for the needs of the child. To accomplish this, guidelines need to be in place and be followed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
National Category
Nursing Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37303 (URN)000404621700013 ()
Conference
62nd Nordic Congress of Radiology & 23rd Nordic Congress of Radiography
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Gimbler Berglund, I., Björkman, B., Enskär, K., Faresjö, M. & Huus, K. (2017). Management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the anesthesia and radiographic context. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(3), 187-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the anesthesia and radiographic context
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: As a primary objective, this study purports to develop guidelines to better care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding these children's preparation for anesthesia and radiologic procedures.

Methods: Using a Delphi method with an online distribution of questionnaire, guidelines for caring for children with ASD were created. Twenty-one participants were included in the expert panel. These participants were working with children with ASD in several anesthesia and radiology departments in Sweden. A list of items was created from a previous survey and the literature. In the first round, the items with <60% agreement were discarded. Items were merged, and a new list was created. Two more similar rounds were performed. In the last 2 rounds, 21 participants responded, and 80% agreement was considered to be consensus.

Results: The final guidelines consisted of 14 items and a checklist of 16 factors. The 5 areas covered by the items and the checklist were as follows: planning involving parents/guardians, features in the environment, and use of time, communication, and the health care professionals. The organization was important in making it possible for the health care professional to care for the individual child according to the child's needs. It was important to involve the parents/guardians to obtain knowledge about the functioning of the child.

Conclusion: A caring encounter involving a child with ASD in the anesthesia and radiology contexts requires advance planning, catered specifically to the individual needs of each child. To accomplish this, general knowledge regarding ASD and ASD's particular manifestation in the child entrusted to their care, is required from the health care workers. The organization needs to have structures in place to facilitate this process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2017
National Category
Nursing Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35267 (URN)10.1097/DBP.0000000000000432 (DOI)000399585500004 ()28333847 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015965039 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B., Gimbler Berglund, I., Enskär, K., Faresjö, M. & Huus, K. (2017). Peri-radiographic guidelines for children with autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide survey in Sweden. Child Care Health and Development, 43(1), 31-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peri-radiographic guidelines for children with autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide survey in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of guidelines and routines used nationwide when children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are taken care of and examined in a radiology department during a peri-radiographic process.

METHOD: A nationwide survey was compiled and distributed to 94 radiology departments throughout Sweden, i.e. those performing more than 100 000 radiographic examinations annually. The survey was designed as a web questionnaire with seven questions on possible guidelines and/or routines for the departments when preparing and taking care of children with ASD in conjunction with a radiographic procedure. The data were scrutinized, using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS: In total, 86 radiology departments responded to the survey (response rate 92%). Of those departments, 40 did not examine children with ASD. None of the departments included in the study had existing guidelines underpinning the routines when preparing and performing radiographic examinations for children diagnosed with ASD. A few departments (n = 8) would set aside more time for the procedure if it were known in advance that the child to be examined had been diagnosed with ASD. Also, some departments (n = 7) had radiographers who were more experienced in the care of children who would be appointed to perform examinations for children with ASD.

CONCLUSION: It is suggested that guidelines should be developed in order to increase interaction in a supportive way and decrease anxiety during the peri-radiographic process with children with ASD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2017
Keywords
autism spectrum disorder (ASD); children; guidelines; preparation; radiographic procedure
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-32259 (URN)10.1111/cch.12427 (DOI)000396460600003 ()27807874 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84997047807 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B., Fridell, K. & Tavakol Olofsson, P. (2017). Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 2025. Radiography, 23(4), 314-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 2025
2017 (English)In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 314-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025.

Method: The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method.

Results: Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled "Access to career advancement" and "A sufficient number of radiographers", were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line.

Conclusion: It is suggested that "The dying profession" scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of "happy radiographers" who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by "the assembly line".

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Career development, Radiography profession, Scenario-Planning, Strategic management, Trends
National Category
Pediatrics Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37183 (URN)10.1016/j.radi.2017.07.002 (DOI)000413191400018 ()28965895 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85027279535 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-21Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B., Bendroth, R. & Andersson, B. T. (2017). Swedish radiographer’s experiences of their work-performance when possessing increased knowledge in reporting. Paper presented at 62nd Nordic Congress of Radiology & 23rd Nordic Congress of Radiography. Acta Radiologica, 58(1 Suppl.), 24-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish radiographer’s experiences of their work-performance when possessing increased knowledge in reporting
2017 (English)In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 24-24Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Radiographers are today facing various challenges as the technical equipment is getting more advanced and the examinations encounter patients with complex medical records. Furthermore, in the Swedish context, radiology departments are struggling with shortage of both radiologists and radiographers. Following, this has led to a work-situation where radiologists are not always in place during emergency duty, and radiographers’are taking on additional responsibility. Hence, there is a need for further and deeper knowledge within areas that previously was undertaken solely by radiologists. One such area is reporting; and a 7.5 ECTS course was designed and offered to registered radiographers. The aim was to investigate radiographer’s experience of their work-performance and contribution to the clinic after attending this particular course in reporting.

Methods: The study had a qualitative design based on individual and semi-structured interviews with 34 radiographers who attended the course in reporting the fall of 2013, 2014 and 2015. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis.

Results: The analysis resulted in a comprehensive theme: Width and depth in the professional practice. This theme embraced three categories: Increased knowledge, Professional recognition, Work satisfaction.

Conclusions: Increased knowledge in reporting is necessary to meet the demands from the diagnostic departments. A course in reporting on advanced level is a tool for deeper understanding of the medical image. However, there will still be challenges and constraints during the path to be a fully specialized radiographer in reporting. There is a need for more courses in this area on the second and third level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37241 (URN)000404621700028 ()
Conference
62nd Nordic Congress of Radiology & 23rd Nordic Congress of Radiography
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B., Enskär, K. & Nilsson, S. (2016). Children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process when the child is seen for a suspected fracture. Radiography, 22(1), 71-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process when the child is seen for a suspected fracture
2016 (English)In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Visiting a Radiology department may elicit both positive and negative feelings for children and parents alike. This study investigated children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process and whether these perceptions correlated with the child's perceptions of pain and distress.

Methods

This study utilized a quantitative descriptive design. Its data was collected in five Radiology departments, two where examinations are performed exclusively on children and three that treat both children and adults. Data collection contained questionnaires from children (n = 110) and their parent (n = 110) as well as children's self-reports of pain and distress.

Results

The findings illustrated that the children and their parent were satisfied with the care provided throughout the peri-radiographic process, unrelated to the child's self-reported levels of pain and distress or examination setting (i.e. children's department or general department). The highest scores of satisfaction were ascribed to “the radiographer's kindness and ability to help in a sufficient way,” whereas “available time to ask questions and to meet the child's emotional needs” received the lowest scores.

Conclusions

Parents and children alike perceived the radiographers as skilled and sensitive throughout the examination, while radiographers' time allocated to interacting with the child was not perceived be sufficiently covered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Children; Care; Pain; Distress; Radiography
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28682 (URN)10.1016/j.radi.2015.07.007 (DOI)000373040700028 ()2-s2.0-84953348422 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Gimbler Berglund, I., Huus, K., Enskär, K., Faresjö, M. & Björkman, B. (2016). Perioperative and anesthesia guidelines for children with autism: A nationwide survey from Sweden. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 37(6), 457-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perioperative and anesthesia guidelines for children with autism: A nationwide survey from Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 457-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The overall aim of this study was to describe the current set of guidelines for the preparation and care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the perioperative setting across Sweden and explore the content of these guidelines in detail.

Method: An online questionnaire was distributed to the chairpersons of all anesthesia departments (n = 68) and pediatric departments (n = 38) throughout Sweden. Follow-up phone calls were made to those departments that did not return the questionnaire. The presence of guidelines was analyzed through descriptive statistics. These guidelines and comments on routines used in these departments were analyzed inspired by conventional content analysis.

Results: Seven of the 68 anesthesia departments and none of the 38 pediatric departments across Sweden have guidelines for preparing and/or administering care to children with ASD within the perioperative setting. From the guidelines and routines used, 3 categories emerge: "lacking the necessary conditions," "no extra considerations needed," and "care with specific consideration for children with ASD." These 3 categories span a continuum in the care. In the first category, the anesthesia induction could result in the child with ASD being physically restrained. In the last category, the entire encounter with the health care service would be adapted to the specific needs of the child.

Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines specifically designed to meet the needs of children with ASD in the preoperative period in Sweden. Further research is needed to understand if children with ASD would benefit from evidence-based guidelines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2016
Keywords
autism spectrum disorder, children with ASD, guidelines, preparation, anesthesia, perioperative settings
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-29779 (URN)10.1097/DBP.0000000000000289 (DOI)000379783300004 ()27011004 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84961390460 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-14 Created: 2016-04-14 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, S., Björkman, B., Almqvist, A.-L., Almqvist, L., Björk-Willén, P., Donohue, D., . . . Hvit, S. (2015). Children’s voices – Differentiating a child perspective from a child’s perspective. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 18(3), 162-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s voices – Differentiating a child perspective from a child’s perspective
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2015 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss differences between having a child perspective and taking the child's perspective based on the problem being investigated.

Methods: Conceptual paper based on narrative review.

Results: The child's perspective in research concerning children that need additional support are important. The difference between having a child perspective and taking the child's perspective in conjunction with the need to know children's opinions has been discussed in the literature. From an ideological perspective the difference between the two perspectives seems self-evident, but the perspectives might be better seen as different ends on a continuum solely from an adult's view of children to solely the perspective of children themselves. Depending on the research question, the design of the study may benefit from taking either perspective. In this article, we discuss the difference between the perspectives based on the problem being investigated, children's capacity to express opinions, environmental adaptations and the degree of interpretation needed to understand children's opinions.

Conclusion: The examples provided indicate that children's opinions can be regarded in most research, although to different degrees.

Keywords
Child perspective, child’s perspective, methodology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-21778 (URN)10.3109/17518423.2013.801529 (DOI)000354216600004 ()23924164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929179113 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2013-08-20 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B. (2014). Children in the Radiology Department: a study of anxiety, pain, distress and verbal interaction. (Doctoral dissertation). Jönköping: School of Health Sciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children in the Radiology Department: a study of anxiety, pain, distress and verbal interaction
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation focuses on children’s experiences of going through an acute radiographic examination due to a suspected fracture. The findings from interviews with children aged 3-15 years showed anxiety, pain and distress to be a concern in conjunction with an examination (Paper I). These initial findings entailed empirical studies being undertaken in order to further study children’s pain and distress in conjunction with an examination (Paper II) as well as children’s anxiety, pain and distress related to the perception of care in the periradiographic process (Paper III). Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was studied (Paper IV).

The research was conducted through qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies. The data collection methods comprised interviews (Paper I), children’s self-reports (Papers II and III), drawings (Paper III), questionnaire (Paper III) and video recordings (Papers I, II and IV). Altogether, 142 children (3-15 years) and 20 female radiographers participated in the studies.

Children aged 5-15 years were observed and they completed selfreports on pain and distress. The children were also provided with an opportunity to express their perceptions of the peri-radiographic process and to make a drawing that was analysed with regard to their level of anxiety. Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was analysed.

Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews and the written comments in the questionnaire (Papers I and III). The Child Drawing: Hospital Manual (CD:H) was used when analysing the children’s drawings (Paper III), and the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used when analysing the verbal interaction derived from the video recordings (Paper IV). Non-parametric statistics were applied when analysing the quantitative data (Papers II, III and IV). The findings showed that children aged 5-15 years reported pain on the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and distress on the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) above levels at which treatment or further intervention is recommended. These findings corresponded to the observed pain behaviour measured on the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale (FLACC) and anxiety expressed through drawings (CD:H). The children’s perception of the care being provided in the peri-radiographic process, was not related to the experience of anxiety, pain and distress however. The children were confident in the radiographers, who they perceived to be skilled in the task and sensitive to their needs. These findings are supported by the analysis of the verbal interaction (RIAS), which showed that the radiographer adjusted the communication when balancing the task-focused and socio-emotional interaction according to the child’s age.

The findings point to the conclusion that children going through an acute radiographic examination should be assessed regarding the anxiety, pain and distress they experience. This is a prerequisite for the radiographer to provide care according to the child’s ability and preferences when interacting with children in the peri-radiographic process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: School of Health Sciences, 2014. p. 94
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 51
Keywords
Children, radiography, experiences, anxiety, pain, distress, verbal interaction, examination
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-23732 (URN)978-91-85835-50-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-05, Forum Humanum, HHJ, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved
Björkman, B., Golsäter, M. & Enskär, K. (2014). Children's Anxiety, Pain, and Distress Related to the Perception of Care While Undergoing an Acute Radiographic Examination. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 33(2), 69-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's Anxiety, Pain, and Distress Related to the Perception of Care While Undergoing an Acute Radiographic Examination
2014 (English)In: Journal of Radiology Nursing, ISSN 1546-0843, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Visiting the hospital is likely a frightening experience for a child, and going through a radiographic examination has been reported as both distressing and painful. More knowledge from the children's perspective is needed on this subject, however, and thus, the aim of this study was to investigate children's anxiety, pain, and distress in conjunction with an acute radiographic procedure and whether these factors can be related to the perception of care. A mixed method design was used to analyze data from 110 participants between 5 and 15 years of age, who were examined in a Swedish radiology department. The quantitative findings showed anxiety, pain, and distress to be a concern during a radiographic examination. Significant correlations were obtained between anxiety and pain as well as between anxiety and distress. In addition, also the qualitative findings showed pain and the waiting time to be concerns. Regardless of the quantitative findings, however, children of all ages were satisfied with the care performed in the periradiographic process, perceiving the examination as supportive and geared to their needs. Robust assessment of anxiety, pain, and distress is imperative when interacting with children in acute examination situations to avoid both negative short-term and long-term consequences.

Keywords
Radiographic examination, Children, Anxiety, Pain, Distress, Care
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-23730 (URN)10.1016/j.jradnu.2013.12.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-84901832249 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2500-190x

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