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Black, M. H., Vaz, S., Parsons, R., Falkmer, T., Tang, J. S. Y., Morris, S., . . . Falkmer, M. (2019). Disembedding performance and eye gaze behavior of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 66, Article ID 101417.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disembedding performance and eye gaze behavior of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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2019 (English)In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 66, article id 101417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Atypical visual perception in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks. Gaze behavior has provided some insights in to mechanisms underlying this purported superiority in children, however evidence is limited and requires additional investigation.

Method: The performance and gaze behavior of 27 adolescents with ASD and 27 matched typically developing (TD) peers were examined during the Figure Ground Subtest of the Test of Visual Perception Skills-third edition (TVPS-3).

Results: Compared to their TD counterparts, adolescents with ASD were no different in accuracy, however, had a longer response time. Differences in gaze behavior were also observed, characterized by adolescents with ASD spending less time viewing the incorrect and target figures, and spending a greater proportion of time viewing irrelevant areas of the stimuli compared to TD adolescents.

Conclusions: Results suggest that while altered visual perception was observed, this did not contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks in adolescents with ASD. Future research is required to elucidate conditions under which altered visual perception may contribute to behavioral superiority. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Enhanced perceptual functioning, Eye tracking, Local bias, Weak central coherence
National Category
Pediatrics Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45475 (URN)10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101417 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068396586 (Scopus ID);HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (Local ID);HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (Archive number);HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Chee, D.-T. Y., Lee, H.-Y. C., Patomella, A.-H. & Falkmer, T. (2019). Investigating the driving performance of drivers with and without autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(1), 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the driving performance of drivers with and without autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions
2019 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the driving performance of drivers with autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions.

Method: Seventeen drivers with autism spectrum disorders and 18 typically developed drivers participated in a driving simulator trial. Prior to the assessment, participants completed the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire and measurements of cognitive and visual-motor ability. The driving simulation involved driving in an urban area with dense traffic and unpredictable events.

Results: In comparison with the typically developed group, drivers with autism spectrum disorders reported significantly more lapses in driving, committed more mistakes on the driving simulator, and were slower to react in challenging situations, such as driving through intersections with abrupt changes in traffic lights. However, they were also less likely to tailgate other vehicles, as measured by time-to-collision between vehicles, on the driving simulator.

Conclusions: The performances of licensed drivers with autism spectrum disorders appeared to be safer in respect to car-following distance but were poorer in their response to challenging traffic situations. Driver education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders should focus on quick identification of hazards, prompt execution of responses, and effective allocation of attention to reduce lapses in driving. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Asperger’s syndrome, critical response, driving simulation, hazard perception, highfunctioning autism, transportation
National Category
Applied Psychology Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37580 (URN)10.1080/09638288.2017.1370498 (DOI)000458237700001 ()28845700 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028521686 (Scopus ID);HHJCHILDIS (Local ID);HHJCHILDIS (Archive number);HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Kuzminski, R., Netto, J., Wilson, J., Falkmer, T., Chamberlain, A. & Falkmer, M. (2019). Linking knowledge and attitudes: Determining neurotypical knowledge about and attitudes towards autism. PLoS ONE, 14(7), Article ID e0220197.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking knowledge and attitudes: Determining neurotypical knowledge about and attitudes towards autism
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0220197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

"Why are neurotypicals so pig-ignorant about autism?" an autistic person wrote on the Curtin Autism Research Group's on-line portal as a response to a call for research questions. Coproduced with an autistic researcher, knowledge about and attitudes towards autism were analysed from 1,054 completed surveys, representing the Australian neurotypical adult population. The majority, 81.5% of participants had a high level of knowledge and 81.3% of participants had a strong positive attitude towards autism. Neither age, nor education level had an impact on attitudes. However, attitudes were influenced by knowledge about 'Societal Views and Ideas'; 'What it Could be Like to Have Autism'; and the demographic variables 'Knowing and having spent time around someone with autism'; and gender (women having more positive attitudes than men). Thus, targeted interventions, geared more towards men than women, to increase knowledge about autism could further improve attitudes and increase acceptance of the autistic community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45536 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0220197 (DOI)31344074 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069963650 (Scopus ID)GOA HHJ 2019, GOA HLK 2019;HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)GOA HHJ 2019, GOA HLK 2019;HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)GOA HHJ 2019, GOA HLK 2019;HHJCHILDIS,HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Rogerson, J. M., Falkmer, M., Cuomo, B. M., Falkmer, T., Whitehouse, A. J., Granich, J. & Vaz, S. (2019). Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 22(4), 219-227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism
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2019 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSEAs computer-based interventions become commonplace for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this study sought to understand the experience of using a parent-delivered supplementary early intervention therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder grounded in a variety of behavioral, sensory, developmental, and relationship-based approaches and delivered via a tablet device.

METHODSParental experiences using the 'Therapy Outcomes by You' (TOBY) application were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 parents.

RESULTSParents reported TOBY facilitated parent-child engagement, provided ideas for therapeutic activities, created feelings of empowerment, and positively impacted their child's development. Barriers to use included preparation time, execution of the intervention, and individual strengths and weaknesses of their child.

CONCLUSIONThe overall parental experience of TOBY was positive when use of the application aligned with parental proficiency, opportunities for use, and importantly, the needs of the child.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2019
Keywords
App; iPad; intervention; technology; treatment
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38909 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2018.1440259 (DOI)000463811300001 ()29485349 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042914082 (Scopus ID);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (Local ID);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (Archive number);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Evans, K. L., Millsteed, J., Richmond, J. E., Falkmer, M., Falkmer, T. & Girdler, S. J. (2019). The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26(3), 184-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 184-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Multigenerational care, mother, parental caregiver, working women, work-life balance
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39426 (URN)10.1080/11038128.2018.1449888 (DOI)000463112800003 ()29540096 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044089240 (Scopus ID);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (Local ID);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (Archive number);HLKCHILDIS;HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Sun, Q. C., Xia, J. C., Foster, J., Falkmer, T. & Lee, H. (2019). Unpacking older drivers’ mobility at roundabouts: Their visual-motor coordination through driver–vehicle–environment interactions. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 13(9), 627-638
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unpacking older drivers’ mobility at roundabouts: Their visual-motor coordination through driver–vehicle–environment interactions
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 627-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While mobility and safety of older drivers are challenged by age-related cognitive changes, the increasingly complex road environment has placed a higher demand on their adaptability. Older drivers experience difficulties in regulating their operational level behaviors which rely on the second-to-second decision-making, e.g., using the visuospatial information to guide their steering. The roundabout maneuver is one of the critical scenarios for older drivers which requires efficient visual and motor coordination. Understanding older drivers’ visual-motor coordination at roundabouts will provide insights into the mobility and safety of older driver population, which is important yet to be explored. This paper contributes to new measurements in driving behavior through quantitative examinations on driver–vehicle–environment interactions. The drivers’ visual-motor coordination is conceptualized as a sequence of eye fixations coupling with the vehicle trajectory in a space–time path. The experimental data were from 38 older adults’ on-road driving recorded using context and location-aware enabled eye tracking and precise vehicle movement tracking. A visual-motor coordination composite indicator (VMCCI) was developed to measure the efficiency of visual-motor coordination in GIS based on the aggregate multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors at entry, circulating and exit stage of a roundabout. The results show that the VMCCI is a sensitive indicator for identifying risky drivers, problematic road sections, problematic behaviors. Older drivers’ VMCCI was associated with the angle of deviation at roundabouts, particularly at the entry stage. Findings of this study have implications for actual roundabout designing practice, which will contribute to improve the safety of older drivers behind the wheel. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Context and location-aware enabled eye tracking, older drivers, vehicle movement trajectory, visual search, visual-motor coordination composite indicator (VMCCI), Behavioral research, Decision making, Eye movements, Eye tracking, Roads and streets, Vehicles, Composite indicators, Location-aware, Vehicle movements, Biomechanics
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42316 (URN)10.1080/15568318.2018.1497236 (DOI)000476895600001 ()2-s2.0-85051273791 (Scopus ID);HHJCHILDIS (Local ID);HHJCHILDIS (Archive number);HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Thompson, C., Bölte, S., Falkmer, T. & Girdler, S. (2019). Viewpoints on how students with autism can best navigate university.. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26(4), 294-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viewpoints on how students with autism can best navigate university.
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 294-305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Despite recognition of the challenges faced by students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) there is limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to participation in major life areas, such as being a university student.

AIM/OBJECTIVE:

This research aimed to examine viewpoints on what affects the success of Australian university students with ASD.

MATERIAL AND METHOD:

Q-methodology was used to describe the viewpoints of university students with ASD, their parents and their mentors, on success at university for students with ASD. A total of 57 participants completed the Q-sort.

RESULTS/FINDINGS:

Three viewpoints emerged; Individualised Support, Contextual Support and Social Support.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study highlighted that supports need to be individualized to the barriers and facilitators faced by Australian students with ASD. Supports also need to be contextualized to the built and social environments of universities.

SIGNIFICANCE:

This study supports the premise that environmental interventions can be effective in facilitating participation in major life areas, such as university education. Peer mentoring for students with ASD may have utility for this group, but should be extended to include social, emotional and psychological support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Autism, Education, Q-methodology, University
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42302 (URN)10.1080/11038128.2018.1495761 (DOI)000466155000006 ()30301402 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054716571 (Scopus ID);HHJCHILDIS (Local ID);HHJCHILDIS (Archive number);HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Sim, A., Fristedt, S., Cordier, R., Vaz, S., Kuzminski, R. & Falkmer, T. (2019). Viewpoints on what is important to maintain relationship satisfaction in couples raising a child with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 65, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viewpoints on what is important to maintain relationship satisfaction in couples raising a child with autism spectrum disorder
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2019 (English)In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 65, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Despite the challenges associated with raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), many couples maintain satisfying relationships. However, it is not clear which factors couples prioritise as most important to this positive adaptation. Methods This study used Q-methodology to explore the viewpoints on factors most important to maintaining relationship satisfaction from the perspective of those experiencing it. Data from 43 caregivers raising a child with ASD were analysed using by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results Two key viewpoints were identified: 1) Building effective communication through openness, honesty and conflict resolution, and 2) Building a strong partnership by sharing parenting responsibilities. Conclusion Couples should be supported to strengthen communication processes and work in partnership to raise their child with ASD through family-centred interventions aimed at promoting relationship satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Conflict resolution, Communication, Dyadic coping, Marriage, Partnership, Strengths, Teamwork
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43735 (URN)10.1016/j.rasd.2019.04.008 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065769691 (Scopus ID);HHJARNIS;HHJCHILDIS;HHJIMPROVE (Local ID);HHJARNIS;HHJCHILDIS;HHJIMPROVE (Archive number);HHJARNIS;HHJCHILDIS;HHJIMPROVE (OAI)
Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
Sun, Q. C., Xia, J. C., Foster, J., Falkmer, T. & Lee, H. (2018). A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms. European Transport Research Review, 10(2), Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms
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2018 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Safe driving constantly challenges the driver’s ability to respond to the dynamic traffic scene under space and time constraints. It is of particular importance for older drivers to perform sufficient visual and motor actions with effective coordination due to the fact of age-related cognitive decline. However, few studies have been able to integrate drivers’ visual-motor behaviours with environmental information in a spatial-temporal context and link to the cognitive conditions of individual drivers. Little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the deterioration in visual-motor coordination of older drivers.

Development: Based on a review of driving-related cognitive decline in older adults and the context of driver-vehicle-environment interactions, this paper established a conceptual framework to identify the parameters of driver’s visual and motor behaviour, and reveal the cognitive process from visual search to vehicle control in driving. The framework led to a psycho-geoinformatics approach to measure older drivers’ driving behaviours and investigate the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The proposed data collection protocol and the analysis and assessments depicted the psycho-geoinformatics approach on obtaining quantified variables and the key means of analysis, as well as outcome measures.

Conclusions: Recordings of the driver and their interactions with the vehicle and environment at a detailed scale give a closer assessment of the driver’s behaviours. Using geoinformatics tools in driving behaviours assessment opens a new era of research with many possible analytical options, which do not have to rely on human observations. Instead, it receives clear indicators of the individual drivers’ interactions with the vehicle and the traffic environment. This approach should make it possible to identify lower-performing older drivers and problematic visual and motor behaviours, and the cognitive predictors of risky driving behaviours. A better targeted regulation and tailored intervention programs for older can be developed by further research. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Cognitive abilities, Eye tracking, Older drivers, Psycho-Geoinformatics, Vehicle movement tracking, Visual-motor coordination, Biomechanics, Control system synthesis, Eye movements, Cognitive ability, Geo-informatics, Vehicle movements, Visual motor coordination, Vehicles
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42318 (URN)10.1186/s12544-018-0308-6 (DOI)000441183100001 ()2-s2.0-85051276157 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Tammimies, K., Li, D., Rabkina, I., Stamouli, S., Becker, M., Nicolaou, V., . . . Bölte, S. (2018). Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder. bioRxiv
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: bioRxivArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Challenges in social communication and interaction are core symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for which social skills group training (SSGT) is a commonly used intervention. SSGT has shown modest but heterogeneous effects in clinical trials, and therefore identification of effect moderators could enable more precise intervention decisions. One of the major genetic risk factors in ASD are rare copy number variation (CNV). However, limited information exists whether rare CNVs profiles can be used to aid in intervention decisions. Therefore, we conducted the first study to date analyzing rare CNVs as genetic moderators in the outcome of SSGT in ASD. For this, we analyzed rare genic CNV carrier status of 207 children of which 105 received SSGT and 102 standard care as part of a recent randomized clinical trial for 12-weeks SSGT. We used mixed linear models to assess the association of being a CNV carrier, grouped by the effect and size of the CNVs and the primary response to SSGT, the parent-report Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measured at post-intervention and 3-months follow-up. Additionally, we analyzed the secondary outcome assessments included parent-rated adaptive behaviors (ABAS-II) and trainer-rated clinical global impression (CGI). We show that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact on the SSGT outcome. However, when stratifying the groups by size of the CNVs, we identified that carriers of large CNVs (>500 kb) showed inferior SRS outcomes at post-intervention (β = 15.35, 95% CI 2.86-27.84, P=0.017) and follow-up (β = 14.19, 95% CI 1.68-26.70, P=0.028). Similar results were shown for the parent-rated secondary outcome. In contrast, the carriers of small CNVs had better outcome at post-intervention (β = -1.20, 95 % CI -2.0 - -0.4 P = 0.003) but not at follow-up for the trainer-rated secondary outcome CGI. These results remained when we tested the specificity of the effect by including the standard care group and adjusting for IQ levels. While our study suggests that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact the outcome, it provides preliminary evidence that carriers of high-risk CNVs might not benefit on SSGT as much as non-carriers. Our results indicate that genetic information eventually might help guide personalized intervention planning in ASD. We additionally highlight that more research is needed to understand the intervention needs of autistic individuals with specified molecular alterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2018
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42319 (URN)10.1101/380147 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0756-6862

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