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Publications (10 of 212) Show all publications
Blane, A., Lee, H., Falkmer, T. & Dukic Willstrand, T. (2018). Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation. Journal of Transport and Health, 9, 169-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 9, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driving is a highly complex task requiring multiple cognitive processes that can be adversely affected post-stroke. It is unclear how much ability post-stroke adults have to self-evaluate their driving performance. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive decline on this evaluation has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of task demand involved in driving tasks, and to examine differences between perceived and observed driving performance in post-stroke drivers in comparison to a control group. A further aim of the research was to investigate the influence of cognition on self-rated driving performance. A total of 78 participants (35 post-stroke and 43 controls) were assessed using a series of cognitive tasks and were observed whilst driving. Participants were asked to rate their own driving performance and the task demand involved while driving using the NASA Task Load Index. Between group analyses were conducted to determine differences in the level of self-rated performance and task demand. Further analyses were conducted to investigate whether cognition accounted for differences in task demand or self-rated performance. Overall, the results suggested that the post-stroke drivers exhibited deficits in cognition, but they did not report increased levels of task demand when driving. Post-stroke adults also rated themselves more conservatively than the controls for on-road performance, which was associated with their reduced propensity for risk. The study suggests that cognitive deficits may influence post-stroke drivers to amend their driving behaviour, in order to bring the task demand within a manageable level. Understanding the mechanisms involved in self-rated performance and estimations of task demand can help promote accurate self-regulation practices in post-stroke drivers. Furthermore, measuring calibration may assist practitioners with assessing fitness-to-drive, as well as with tailoring driving rehabilitation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Australia, Calibration, Cerebrovascular accident, Cognitive performance, Older drivers, On-road driving
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41203 (URN)10.1016/j.jth.2018.01.013 (DOI)000437100900020 ()2-s2.0-85042855171 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Lim, Y. H., Lee, H. C., Falkmer, T., Allison, G. T., Tan, T., Lee, W. L. & Morris, S. L. (2018). Effect of optic flow on postural control in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Neuroscience, 393, 138-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of optic flow on postural control in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 393, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with sensorimotor difficulties, commonly presented by poor postural control. Postural control is necessary for all motor behaviors. However, findings concerning the effect of visual motion on postural control and the age progression of postural control in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine postural responses to optic flow in children and adults with and without ASD, postural responses to optic flow in the central and peripheral visual fields, and the changes in postural responses between the child and adult groups. Thirty-three children (8–12 years old) and 33 adults (18–50 years old) with and without ASD were assessed on quiet standing for 60 seconds under conditions of varying optic flow illusions, consisting of different combinations of optic flow directions and visual field display. The results showed that postural responses to most optic flow conditions were comparable between children with and without ASD and between adults with and without ASD. However, adults with ASD appeared more responsive to forward-moving optic flow in the peripheral visual field compared with typically developed adults. The findings suggest that children and adults with ASD may not display maladaptive postural responses all the time. In addition, adults in the ASD group may have difficulties prioritizing visual information in the central visual field over visual information in the peripheral visual field when in unfamiliar environments, which may have implications in understanding their motor behaviors in new surroundings. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
autistic disorder, balance, developmental disorder, motion perception, visual fields, visual perception, adult, age, Article, autism, child, comparative study, controlled study, experimental study, female, human, major clinical study, male, motor control, motor performance, optic flow, peripheral vision, postural control, priority journal, school child, sensorimotor function, visual field, visual illusion
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42307 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.09.047 (DOI)000450777900012 ()30312785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055205974 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Lim, Y. H., Lee, H. C., Falkmer, T., Allison, G. T., Tan, T., Lee, W. L. & Morris, S. L. (2018). Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sensory processing difficulties affect the development of sensorimotor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the effect of sensory information on postural control is unclear in the ASD adult population. The present study examined the effect of visual information on postural control as well as the attentional demands associated with postural control in fourteen adults with ASD and seventeen typically developed adults. The results showed that postural sway and attention demands of postural control were larger in adults with ASD than in typically developed adults. These findings indicate that visual processing used for postural control may be different in adults with ASD. Further research in visual field processing and visual motion processing may elucidate these sensorimotor differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Attention, Autistic disorder, Postural balance, Sensorimotor, Sensory information, Visual processing
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42301 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3634-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048102403 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14
Scott, M., Falkmer, M., Falkmer, T. & Girdler, S. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 48(10), 3377-3392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effectiveness of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers: A randomised controlled trial
2018 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3377-3392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of the Integrated Employment Success Tool (IEST™) in improving employers’ self-efficacy in modifying the workplace for individuals on the autism spectrum. Employers (N = 84) were randomised to the IEST™ or support as usual groups. Measurements of self-efficacy, knowledge and attitudes towards disability in the workplace were obtained at baseline and post-test. Results revealed a significant improvement in self-efficacy within the IEST™ group between baseline and post-test (p = 0.016). At post-test, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to self-efficacy in implementing autism-specific workplace modifications and employer attitudes towards disability in the workplace. Given the lack of significant outcomes, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the IEST™ for employers. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #ACTRN12614000771651, registered 21/7/2014. Trial URLhttps://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366699. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Autism spectrum disorder, Complex intervention, Hiring, Vocational support, Work environment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39857 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3611-0 (DOI)000445160900011 ()29767376 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047146139 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Sim, A., Vaz, S., Cordier, R., Joosten, A., Parsons, D., Smith, C. & Falkmer, T. (2018). Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 21(3), 155-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD. Severe family stress was associated with (1) reduced ability to socialize; (2) not having accessed individual therapy; (3) negative co-parent relationships; and (4) high out of pockets costs due to the child’s ASD. The specific ASD diagnosis, comorbid conditions, socio-demographic variables, and social support were not associated with severe family stress. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlight the importance of a systemic approach to family stress, whereby individual, family, and ecological factors are investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Ability to socialize, co-parent, cost, family systems, individual therapy, occupation
National Category
Psychology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37577 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2017.1326185 (DOI)000427274000002 ()28598245 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020626176 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hatfield, M., Ciccarelli, M., Falkmer, T. & Falkmer, M. (2018). Factors related to successful transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 18(1), 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors related to successful transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum
2018 (English)In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adolescents on the autism spectrum often have difficulties with the transition from high school to post-school activities. Despite this, little is known about the transition planning processes for this group. This study explored predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors related to the transition planning processes for adolescents on the autism spectrum in Australia. The PRECEDE model guided a needs assessment, in which descriptive data about transition planning processes were collected via an online questionnaire from adolescents on the autism spectrum, their parents and professionals (N = 162). Predisposing factors included: an individualised and strengths-focused approach, and adolescent motivation, anxiety and insight. Reinforcing factors included: support and guidance, skill development and real-life experiences. Enabling factors were: having a clear plan with a coordinated approach, scheduled meetings and clear formal documentation. Whilst some factors aligned with recommendations for transition planning for adolescents with disabilities in general, there were some autism-specific factors. For example: anxiety, motivation and insight were important predisposing factors, and providing choice and flexibility was an enabling factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Asperger syndrome, Child development disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder, Employment, Vocational education, College, University, Career planning and development
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35391 (URN)10.1111/1471-3802.12388 (DOI)000419513000001 ()2-s2.0-85040172767 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Cowan, G., Earl, R., Falkmer, T., Girdler, S., Morris, S. L. & Falkmer, M. (2018). Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?. Journal of Transport and Health, 8, 112-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Eye contact, Non-traffic relevant, Pedestrian crossing, Shared space, Traffic relevant
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38751 (URN)10.1016/j.jth.2017.12.001 (DOI)000431077800015 ()2-s2.0-85040536467 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved
Blane, A., Falkmer, T., Lee, H. C. & Willstrand, T. D. (2018). Investigating cognitive ability and self-reported driving performance of post-stroke adults in a driving simulator. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 25(1), 44-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating cognitive ability and self-reported driving performance of post-stroke adults in a driving simulator
2018 (English)In: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, ISSN 1074-9357, E-ISSN 1945-5119, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Safe driving is a complex activity that requires calibration. This means the driver can accurately assess the level of task demand required for task completion and can accurately evaluate their driving capability. There is much debate on the calibration ability of post-stroke drivers.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the cognition, self-rated performance, and estimation of task demand in a driving simulator with post-stroke drivers and controls.

Methods

A between-groups study design was employed, which included a post-stroke driver group and a group of similarly aged older control drivers. Both groups were observed driving in two simulator-based driving scenarios and asked to complete the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) to assess their perceived task demand and self-rate their driving performance. Participants also completed a battery of psychometric tasks to assess attention and executive function, which was used to determine whether post-stroke cognitive impairment impacted on calibration.

Results

There was no difference in the amount of perceived task demand required to complete the driving task. Despite impairments in cognition, the post-stroke drivers were not more likely to over-estimate their driving abilities than controls. On average, the post-stroke drivers self-rated themselves more poorly than the controls and this rating was related to cognitive ability.

Conclusion

This study suggests that post-stroke drivers may be aware of their deficits and adjust their driving behavior. Furthermore, using self-performance measures alongside a driving simulator and cognitive assessments may provide complementary fitness-to-drive assessments, as well as rehabilitation tools during post-stroke recovery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Attention, Australia, calibration, cognition, executive function, task demand
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38407 (URN)10.1080/10749357.2017.1373929 (DOI)000424127300007 ()29022422 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045076824 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Rogerson, J. M., Falkmer, M., Cuomo, B. M., Falkmer, T., Whitehouse, A. J., Granich, J. & Vaz, S. (2018). Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism
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2018 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE:

As computer-based interventions become commonplace for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this study sought to understand the experience of using a parent-delivered supplementary early intervention therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder grounded in a variety of behavioral, sensory, developmental, and relationship-based approaches and delivered via a tablet device.

METHODS:

Parental experiences using the 'Therapy Outcomes by You' (TOBY) application were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 parents.

RESULTS:

Parents reported TOBY facilitated parent-child engagement, provided ideas for therapeutic activities, created feelings of empowerment, and positively impacted their child's development. Barriers to use included preparation time, execution of the intervention, and individual strengths and weaknesses of their child.

CONCLUSION:

The overall parental experience of TOBY was positive when use of the application aligned with parental proficiency, opportunities for use, and importantly, the needs of the child.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2018
Keywords
App; iPad; intervention; technology; treatment
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38909 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2018.1440259 (DOI)29485349 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042914082 (Scopus ID)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-09-26
Hatfield, M., Falkmer, M., Falkmer, T. & Ciccarelli, M. (2018). Process evaluation of the BOOST - A transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: A strengths-based approach. Journal of autism and developmental disorders (2), 377-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process evaluation of the BOOST - A transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: A strengths-based approach
2018 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, no 2, p. 377-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A process evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness, usability, and barriers and facilitators related to the Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)), an online transition planning program. Adolescents on the autism spectrum (n = 33) and their parents (n = 39) provided feedback via an online questionnaire. Of these, 13 participants were interviewed to gain in-depth information about their experiences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (i) taking action to overcome inertia, (ii) new insights that led to clear plans for the future, (iii) adolescent empowerment through strengths focus, and (iv) having a champion to guide the way. The process evaluation revealed why BOOST-A (TM) was beneficial to some participants more than others. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Asperger’s syndrome; Employment; High school; Pervasive developmental disorder; Self-determination theory; Vocational education
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37562 (URN)10.1007/s10803-017-3317-8 (DOI)000424669000005 ()29019012 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030831834 (Scopus ID)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HLKCHILDIS, HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-10-05 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0756-6862

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