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Publications (10 of 217) Show all publications
Sun, Q. C., Xia, J. C., Foster, J., Falkmer, T. & Lee, H. (2018). A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms. European Transport Research Review, 10(2), Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms
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2018 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Safe driving constantly challenges the driver’s ability to respond to the dynamic traffic scene under space and time constraints. It is of particular importance for older drivers to perform sufficient visual and motor actions with effective coordination due to the fact of age-related cognitive decline. However, few studies have been able to integrate drivers’ visual-motor behaviours with environmental information in a spatial-temporal context and link to the cognitive conditions of individual drivers. Little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the deterioration in visual-motor coordination of older drivers.

Development: Based on a review of driving-related cognitive decline in older adults and the context of driver-vehicle-environment interactions, this paper established a conceptual framework to identify the parameters of driver’s visual and motor behaviour, and reveal the cognitive process from visual search to vehicle control in driving. The framework led to a psycho-geoinformatics approach to measure older drivers’ driving behaviours and investigate the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The proposed data collection protocol and the analysis and assessments depicted the psycho-geoinformatics approach on obtaining quantified variables and the key means of analysis, as well as outcome measures.

Conclusions: Recordings of the driver and their interactions with the vehicle and environment at a detailed scale give a closer assessment of the driver’s behaviours. Using geoinformatics tools in driving behaviours assessment opens a new era of research with many possible analytical options, which do not have to rely on human observations. Instead, it receives clear indicators of the individual drivers’ interactions with the vehicle and the traffic environment. This approach should make it possible to identify lower-performing older drivers and problematic visual and motor behaviours, and the cognitive predictors of risky driving behaviours. A better targeted regulation and tailored intervention programs for older can be developed by further research. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Cognitive abilities, Eye tracking, Older drivers, Psycho-Geoinformatics, Vehicle movement tracking, Visual-motor coordination, Biomechanics, Control system synthesis, Eye movements, Cognitive ability, Geo-informatics, Vehicle movements, Visual motor coordination, Vehicles
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42318 (URN)10.1186/s12544-018-0308-6 (DOI)000441183100001 ()2-s2.0-85051276157 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Tammimies, K., Li, D., Rabkina, I., Stamouli, S., Becker, M., Nicolaou, V., . . . Bölte, S. (2018). Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder. bioRxiv
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: bioRxivArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Challenges in social communication and interaction are core symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for which social skills group training (SSGT) is a commonly used intervention. SSGT has shown modest but heterogeneous effects in clinical trials, and therefore identification of effect moderators could enable more precise intervention decisions. One of the major genetic risk factors in ASD are rare copy number variation (CNV). However, limited information exists whether rare CNVs profiles can be used to aid in intervention decisions. Therefore, we conducted the first study to date analyzing rare CNVs as genetic moderators in the outcome of SSGT in ASD. For this, we analyzed rare genic CNV carrier status of 207 children of which 105 received SSGT and 102 standard care as part of a recent randomized clinical trial for 12-weeks SSGT. We used mixed linear models to assess the association of being a CNV carrier, grouped by the effect and size of the CNVs and the primary response to SSGT, the parent-report Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measured at post-intervention and 3-months follow-up. Additionally, we analyzed the secondary outcome assessments included parent-rated adaptive behaviors (ABAS-II) and trainer-rated clinical global impression (CGI). We show that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact on the SSGT outcome. However, when stratifying the groups by size of the CNVs, we identified that carriers of large CNVs (>500 kb) showed inferior SRS outcomes at post-intervention (β = 15.35, 95% CI 2.86-27.84, P=0.017) and follow-up (β = 14.19, 95% CI 1.68-26.70, P=0.028). Similar results were shown for the parent-rated secondary outcome. In contrast, the carriers of small CNVs had better outcome at post-intervention (β = -1.20, 95 % CI -2.0 - -0.4 P = 0.003) but not at follow-up for the trainer-rated secondary outcome CGI. These results remained when we tested the specificity of the effect by including the standard care group and adjusting for IQ levels. While our study suggests that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact the outcome, it provides preliminary evidence that carriers of high-risk CNVs might not benefit on SSGT as much as non-carriers. Our results indicate that genetic information eventually might help guide personalized intervention planning in ASD. We additionally highlight that more research is needed to understand the intervention needs of autistic individuals with specified molecular alterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2018
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42319 (URN)10.1101/380147 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Blane, A., Lee, H., Falkmer, T. & Dukic Willstrand, T. (2018). Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation. Journal of Transport and Health, 9, 169-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 9, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driving is a highly complex task requiring multiple cognitive processes that can be adversely affected post-stroke. It is unclear how much ability post-stroke adults have to self-evaluate their driving performance. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive decline on this evaluation has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of task demand involved in driving tasks, and to examine differences between perceived and observed driving performance in post-stroke drivers in comparison to a control group. A further aim of the research was to investigate the influence of cognition on self-rated driving performance. A total of 78 participants (35 post-stroke and 43 controls) were assessed using a series of cognitive tasks and were observed whilst driving. Participants were asked to rate their own driving performance and the task demand involved while driving using the NASA Task Load Index. Between group analyses were conducted to determine differences in the level of self-rated performance and task demand. Further analyses were conducted to investigate whether cognition accounted for differences in task demand or self-rated performance. Overall, the results suggested that the post-stroke drivers exhibited deficits in cognition, but they did not report increased levels of task demand when driving. Post-stroke adults also rated themselves more conservatively than the controls for on-road performance, which was associated with their reduced propensity for risk. The study suggests that cognitive deficits may influence post-stroke drivers to amend their driving behaviour, in order to bring the task demand within a manageable level. Understanding the mechanisms involved in self-rated performance and estimations of task demand can help promote accurate self-regulation practices in post-stroke drivers. Furthermore, measuring calibration may assist practitioners with assessing fitness-to-drive, as well as with tailoring driving rehabilitation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Australia, Calibration, Cerebrovascular accident, Cognitive performance, Older drivers, On-road driving
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41203 (URN)10.1016/j.jth.2018.01.013 (DOI)000437100900020 ()2-s2.0-85042855171 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Sun, Q. C., Xia, J. C., Foster, J., Falkmer, T. & Lee, H. (2018). Driving manoeuvre during lane maintenance in older adults: Associations with neuropsychological scores. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 53, 117-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving manoeuvre during lane maintenance in older adults: Associations with neuropsychological scores
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 53, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Older drivers experience difficulties in lane maintenance under challenging driving sections due to age-related cognitive declines, yet there is little comprehensive evidence on associations between cognitive functions and the lane maintenance in this population. In this study, fifty older drivers completed an on-road driving assessment and a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Mean Lane Position (MLP), Standard Deviation of Lane Position (SDLP) and manoeuvre time calculated from precise vehicle movement trajectories were used as the lane maintenance parameters. The GNSS tracking vehicle movement presents comprehensive and reliable vehicle position data, which is more sensitive for detecting subtle variations of lane maintenance in older drivers. Statistical analysis results show that lower visual attention (selective and divided attention) was associated with higher MLP and SDLP; MLP was also correlated to spatial abilities, executive function, and motor speed; manoeuvre time was negatively correlated with drivers’ risk-taking personality (all p <.01). Selective attention was found to be the best predictor of MLP in lane maintenance. A combined eight variables from three neuropsychological tests, UFOV 2 and 3, BD and BJLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3, and 4, correctly classified 80.4% of participants with good versus low-performing lane maintenance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Cognitive abilities, GNSS tracking, Lane maintenance, Neuropsychological tests, Older drivers, Behavioral research, Global positioning system, Risk assessment, Risk management, Vehicles, Cognitive ability, Cognitive functions, Executive function, Maintenance parameters, Selective attention, Standard deviation, Maintenance
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42314 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.12.016 (DOI)000425565500011 ()2-s2.0-85041296662 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Lim, Y. H., Lee, H. C., Falkmer, T., Allison, G. T., Tan, T., Lee, W. L. & Morris, S. L. (2018). Effect of optic flow on postural control in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Neuroscience, 393, 138-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of optic flow on postural control in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 393, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with sensorimotor difficulties, commonly presented by poor postural control. Postural control is necessary for all motor behaviors. However, findings concerning the effect of visual motion on postural control and the age progression of postural control in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine postural responses to optic flow in children and adults with and without ASD, postural responses to optic flow in the central and peripheral visual fields, and the changes in postural responses between the child and adult groups. Thirty-three children (8–12 years old) and 33 adults (18–50 years old) with and without ASD were assessed on quiet standing for 60 seconds under conditions of varying optic flow illusions, consisting of different combinations of optic flow directions and visual field display. The results showed that postural responses to most optic flow conditions were comparable between children with and without ASD and between adults with and without ASD. However, adults with ASD appeared more responsive to forward-moving optic flow in the peripheral visual field compared with typically developed adults. The findings suggest that children and adults with ASD may not display maladaptive postural responses all the time. In addition, adults in the ASD group may have difficulties prioritizing visual information in the central visual field over visual information in the peripheral visual field when in unfamiliar environments, which may have implications in understanding their motor behaviors in new surroundings. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
autistic disorder, balance, developmental disorder, motion perception, visual fields, visual perception, adult, age, Article, autism, child, comparative study, controlled study, experimental study, female, human, major clinical study, male, motor control, motor performance, optic flow, peripheral vision, postural control, priority journal, school child, sensorimotor function, visual field, visual illusion
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42307 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.09.047 (DOI)000450777900012 ()30312785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055205974 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Lim, Y. H., Lee, H. C., Falkmer, T., Allison, G. T., Tan, T., Lee, W. L. & Morris, S. L. (2018). Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sensory processing difficulties affect the development of sensorimotor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the effect of sensory information on postural control is unclear in the ASD adult population. The present study examined the effect of visual information on postural control as well as the attentional demands associated with postural control in fourteen adults with ASD and seventeen typically developed adults. The results showed that postural sway and attention demands of postural control were larger in adults with ASD than in typically developed adults. These findings indicate that visual processing used for postural control may be different in adults with ASD. Further research in visual field processing and visual motion processing may elucidate these sensorimotor differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Attention, Autistic disorder, Postural balance, Sensorimotor, Sensory information, Visual processing
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42301 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3634-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048102403 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14
Scott, M., Falkmer, M., Falkmer, T. & Girdler, S. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 48(10), 3377-3392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effectiveness of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers: A randomised controlled trial
2018 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3377-3392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of the Integrated Employment Success Tool (IEST™) in improving employers’ self-efficacy in modifying the workplace for individuals on the autism spectrum. Employers (N = 84) were randomised to the IEST™ or support as usual groups. Measurements of self-efficacy, knowledge and attitudes towards disability in the workplace were obtained at baseline and post-test. Results revealed a significant improvement in self-efficacy within the IEST™ group between baseline and post-test (p = 0.016). At post-test, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to self-efficacy in implementing autism-specific workplace modifications and employer attitudes towards disability in the workplace. Given the lack of significant outcomes, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the IEST™ for employers. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #ACTRN12614000771651, registered 21/7/2014. Trial URLhttps://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366699. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Autism spectrum disorder, Complex intervention, Hiring, Vocational support, Work environment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39857 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3611-0 (DOI)000445160900011 ()29767376 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047146139 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Sim, A., Vaz, S., Cordier, R., Joosten, A., Parsons, D., Smith, C. & Falkmer, T. (2018). Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 21(3), 155-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder
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2018 (English)In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD. Severe family stress was associated with (1) reduced ability to socialize; (2) not having accessed individual therapy; (3) negative co-parent relationships; and (4) high out of pockets costs due to the child’s ASD. The specific ASD diagnosis, comorbid conditions, socio-demographic variables, and social support were not associated with severe family stress. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlight the importance of a systemic approach to family stress, whereby individual, family, and ecological factors are investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Ability to socialize, co-parent, cost, family systems, individual therapy, occupation
National Category
Psychology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-37577 (URN)10.1080/17518423.2017.1326185 (DOI)000427274000002 ()28598245 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020626176 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hatfield, M., Ciccarelli, M., Falkmer, T. & Falkmer, M. (2018). Factors related to successful transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 18(1), 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors related to successful transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum
2018 (English)In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adolescents on the autism spectrum often have difficulties with the transition from high school to post-school activities. Despite this, little is known about the transition planning processes for this group. This study explored predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors related to the transition planning processes for adolescents on the autism spectrum in Australia. The PRECEDE model guided a needs assessment, in which descriptive data about transition planning processes were collected via an online questionnaire from adolescents on the autism spectrum, their parents and professionals (N = 162). Predisposing factors included: an individualised and strengths-focused approach, and adolescent motivation, anxiety and insight. Reinforcing factors included: support and guidance, skill development and real-life experiences. Enabling factors were: having a clear plan with a coordinated approach, scheduled meetings and clear formal documentation. Whilst some factors aligned with recommendations for transition planning for adolescents with disabilities in general, there were some autism-specific factors. For example: anxiety, motivation and insight were important predisposing factors, and providing choice and flexibility was an enabling factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Asperger syndrome, Child development disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder, Employment, Vocational education, College, University, Career planning and development
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35391 (URN)10.1111/1471-3802.12388 (DOI)000419513000001 ()2-s2.0-85040172767 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Cowan, G., Earl, R., Falkmer, T., Girdler, S., Morris, S. L. & Falkmer, M. (2018). Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?. Journal of Transport and Health, 8, 112-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Eye contact, Non-traffic relevant, Pedestrian crossing, Shared space, Traffic relevant
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38751 (URN)10.1016/j.jth.2017.12.001 (DOI)000431077800015 ()2-s2.0-85040536467 (Scopus ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Local ID)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (Archive number)HHJCHILDIS, HLKCHILDIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0756-6862

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