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Mellander, CharlottaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4560-1905
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Publications (10 of 82) Show all publications
Florida, R. L., Adler, P., King, K. M. & Mellander, C. (2020). The city as startup machine: The urban underpinnings of modern entrepreneurship. In: Iftikhar M., Justice J., Audretsch D (Ed.), Urban Studies and Entrepreneurship: (pp. 19-30). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The city as startup machine: The urban underpinnings of modern entrepreneurship
2020 (English)In: Urban Studies and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Iftikhar M., Justice J., Audretsch D, Springer, 2020, p. 19-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter lays out the connection between urbanism and entrepreneurship. For decades, it was thought that startup activity tended to cluster in suburban office parks or “nerdistans” like those of California’s Silicon Valley. We argue that tech startups are increasingly clustered in large global cities and metro areas and in denser urban neighborhoods or districts within those cities. In effect, the city stands as the organizing unit platform for entrepreneurial activity, bringing together the talent, knowledge, capital, and other assets required for it to occur. To advance this argument, the chapter marries the literatures on entrepreneurship going back to the seminal contributions of Joseph Schumpeter to the theories of urban clustering and dynamic cities associated with Jane Jacobs, Alfred Marshall, and their disciples. It then arrays a variety of empirical evidence on the location of high-tech startup activity to make this case, including data on the concentration of venture capital investment in high-tech startups in large global cities and in dense urban neighborhoods within those large cities. It also discusses the rise of a new segment of high-technology industry, urban tech, which spans new sectors like ride hailing, co-living, co-working, real estate technology, construction technology, and smart city technology, which has made the city not just the platform for but the object of entrepreneurial startup activity. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Series
Urban Book Series, ISSN 2365-757X
Keywords
Cities, Entrepreneurship, Startups, Urban, Venture capital
National Category
Economic Geography Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-45361 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-15164-5_2 (DOI)000487328800002 ()2-s2.0-85066018792 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-15164-5 (ISBN)978-3-030-15163-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Strumsky, D., Lobo, J. & Mellander, C. (2019). As different as night and day: Scaling analysis of Swedish urban areas and regional labor markets. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As different as night and day: Scaling analysis of Swedish urban areas and regional labor markets
2019 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The urban scaling framework views cities as integrated socioeconomic networks of interactions embedded in physical space. A crucial property of cities highlighted by this approach is that cities act to mix populations, a mixing both facilitated and constrained by physical infrastructure. Operationalizing a view of cities as settings for social interactions and population mixing—assembling a set of spatial units of analysis which contain the relevant social aspects of urban settlements—implies choices about the use of existing data, the assignation of data to locations, and the delineation of the boundaries of urban areas, all of which are far from trivial research decisions. Metropolitan areas have become the spatial unit of choice in urban economics and economic geography for investigating urban life as they are seen as encompassing the distinct phenomena of “urbanity” (proximity, density) and social interactions indirectly captured through a unified labor market. However, the population size and areal extent of metropolitan areas, as most often defined, render opaque the distinction between two salient types of urban population: those who work and those who reside within a metropolitan area. These two sets of individuals, among whom of course there is great overlap, putatively engage in different economic and social interactions which are in turn differently embedded in physical space. Availing ourselves of Swedish micro-level data for two distinct spatial units, tätorts (“dense localites”) and local labor markets, we can distinguish which types of populations and which types of spatial agglomerations are responsible for the observed scaling effects on productivity and physical infrastructure. We find that spatially contiguous labor markets are not enough to generate some of the most salient urban scaling phenomena. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
labor markets, metropolitan areas, tätorts, Urban scaling
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46289 (URN)10.1177/2399808319861974 (DOI)000476295100001 ()2-s2.0-85069056378 (Scopus ID);IHHCenSEIS (Local ID);IHHCenSEIS (Archive number);IHHCenSEIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-25
Adler, P., Florida, R., King, K. & Mellander, C. (2019). The city and high-tech startups: The spatial organization of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Cities, 87(April), 121-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The city and high-tech startups: The spatial organization of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship
2019 (English)In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 87, no April, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on Schumpeterian entrepreneurship identifies new high-growth startup companies as key factors in technological innovation and economic growth. While economists have tended to focus on high-growth, high-tech startup firms as the unit of analysis, economic geographers and urbanists have examined the geographic dimensions of entrepreneurship, particularly the rise of entrepreneurial clusters and eco systems. We focus here on a particular type of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship associated with high-tech startup companies, or what we refer to as “tech-startup entrepreneurship.” We contend that the organization of such Schumpeterian entrepreneurship occurs at two spatial scales. At the macro-geographic level, it is highly clustered and concentrated in a relatively small number of global cities or metro areas. At the micro-geographic level, it is highly concentrated in distinct districts or micro-clusters within these leading cities and metro areas. To examine the geographic dimensions of tech-startup entrepreneurship across these spatial scales, we use previously unused data on venture capital-financed startups at the metropolitan and district levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that tech-startup entrepreneurship is organized across two distinct but related spatial scales, which act on entrepreneurial activity through different mechanisms. These findings suggest that local diversity and local specialization can simultaneously potentiate innovation, and that a multi-scalar approach to the geography of entrepreneurship is prudent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2019
Keywords
Startup entrepreneurship, Tech startups, Venture capital, Clustering, Geography, City
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42924 (URN)10.1016/j.cities.2018.12.013 (DOI)000463130100013 ()2-s2.0-85059638509 (Scopus ID)IHHCESISIS (Local ID)IHHCESISIS (Archive number)IHHCESISIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Florida, R. & Mellander, C. (2019). The geography of the global super-rich. Cities, 88, 112-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The geography of the global super-rich
2019 (English)In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 88, p. 112-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42772 (URN)10.1016/j.cities.2019.01.004 (DOI)000466455500012 ()2-s2.0-85060025574 (Scopus ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Local ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Archive number)IHHÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Florida, R. & Mellander, C. (2018). The geography of economic segregation. Social Sciences, 7(8), Article ID 123.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The geography of economic segregation
2018 (English)In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the key factors that are associated with the geography of economic segregation across US metros. It connects the sociological literature on the extent and variation of economic segregation to the urban economics literature on the factors associated with urban and regional performance. It advances the hypothesis that economic segregation will be greater in larger, denser, more knowledge-based regions as well as in light of racial factors and income inequality. It utilizes measures of Income, Educational, and Occupational Segregation along with a combined measure of Overall Economic Segregation. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis and indicate that economic segregation is associated with larger, denser, more highly educated metros. Economic segregation is also to a certain extent related with race and ethnicity, commuting style, and income inequality. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
Density, Economic segregation, Ethnicity, Inequality, Knowledge economies, Population, Race, Regional performance, Size
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41246 (URN)10.3390/socsci7080123 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051494663 (Scopus ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Local ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Archive number)IHHÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Mellander, C., Florida, R., Rentfrow, P. J. & Potter, J. (2018). The geography of music preferences. Journal of Cultural Economics, 42(4), 593-618
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The geography of music preferences
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cultural Economics, ISSN 0885-2545, E-ISSN 1573-6997, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 593-618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable attention has been paid to America’s political and economic divides. These divides revolve around class and location, with more affluent, more educated and denser places leaning more open-minded and liberal and less affluent, less educated and less dense places leaning more conservative. We contend that such divides are also reflected and reinforced by preferences, attitudes and predispositions for culture. More specifically we argue that Americans’ preferences for music will reflect dimensions of these political and economic divides. To test this proposition, our research examines the geographic variation of five key categories of music preferences across 95 of the largest US metropolitan areas. We use factor analysis to identify and map geographic variation of musical preferences, and we use both bivariate correlation analyses and regression analysis to examine the associations between metro-level musical preferences and key economic, demographic, political, and psychological variables. We find that musical preferences generally reflect and reinforce America’s broader economic and political divides.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Geography, Music preferences, Socioeconomic structures
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42194 (URN)10.1007/s10824-018-9320-X (DOI)000450852400003 ()2-s2.0-85056806079 (Scopus ID)IHHCEnSEIS (Local ID)IHHCEnSEIS (Archive number)IHHCEnSEIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Shutters, S. T., Lobo, J., Muneepeerakul, R., Strumsky, D., Mellander, C., Brachert, M., . . . Bettencourt, L. M. .. (2018). Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations. PLoS ONE, 13(5), Article ID e0196915.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0196915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban economies are composed of diverse activities, embodied in labor occupations, which depend on one another to produce goods and services. Yet little is known about how the nature and intensity of these interdependences change as cities increase in population size and economic complexity. Understanding the relationship between occupational interdependencies and the number of occupations defining an urban economy is relevant because interdependence within a networked system has implications for system resilience and for how easily can the structure of the network be modified. Here, we represent the interdependencies among occupations in a city as a non-spatial information network, where the strengths of interdependence between pairs of occupations determine the strengths of the links in the network. Using those quantified link strengths we calculate a single metric of interdependence–or connectedness–which is equivalent to the density of a city’s weighted occupational network. We then examine urban systems in six industrialized countries, analyzing how the density of urban occupational networks changes with network size, measured as the number of unique occupations present in an urban workforce. We find that in all six countries, density, or economic interdependence, increases superlinearly with the number of distinct occupations. Because connections among occupations represent flows of information, we provide evidence that connectivity scales superlinearly with network size in information networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2018
Keywords
article, developed country, human, occupation
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41090 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0196915 (DOI)000431481700032 ()2-s2.0-85046632009 (Scopus ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Local ID)IHHÖvrigtIS (Archive number)IHHÖvrigtIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Rickardsson, J. & Mellander, C. (2017). Absolute vs Relative Income and Life Satisfaction. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Absolute vs Relative Income and Life Satisfaction
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines whether subjective life-satisfaction is most strongly related to absolute or relative income in terms of either proximal neighbors or a wider aggregated region. The analysis utilizes two unique datasets - survey data on happiness in combination with finelevel income data for postal codes and municipalities. We find a significant relationship between happiness and both personal income and relative income position among nearby neighbors and more remote neighbors. Hence, being rich as well as being richer than others in the area increases the likelihood of being more satisfied with life. Above all, we find individuals’ level of life-satisfaction to be more strongly related to the income of people in the larger municipality than to the income of nearby neighbors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS, 2017. p. 28
Series
Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation ; 451
Keywords
Life-satisfaction, Happiness, Subjective well-being, Absolute income, Relative income
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38239 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Mellander, C. & Bjerke, L. (2017). De ungas flykt till staden. In: Josefina Syssner, Sören Häggroth & Ulf Ramberg (Ed.), Att äga framtiden: Perspektiv på kommunal utveckling (pp. 195-201). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>De ungas flykt till staden
2017 (Swedish)In: Att äga framtiden: Perspektiv på kommunal utveckling / [ed] Josefina Syssner, Sören Häggroth & Ulf Ramberg, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 195-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38219 (URN)9789176854204 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Mellander, C., Stolarick, K. & Lobo, J. (2017). Distinguishing neighbourhood and workplace network effects on individual income: Evidence from Sweden. Regional studies, 51(11), 1652-1664
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distinguishing neighbourhood and workplace network effects on individual income: Evidence from Sweden
2017 (English)In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1652-1664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distinguishing neighbourhood and workplace network effects on individual income: evidence from Sweden. Regional Studies. This paper investigates the effects on individuals’ income of two social networks in which individuals are embedded: their residential neighbourhood and their workplace. The paper avails itself of Swedish micro-level data, which make it possible to identify individual workers, and with whom they live next to and work. The spatial extent of the non-workplace social network – from block group to the whole of a metropolitan area – is varied to examine which social community most affects an individual’s income. The paper distinguishes between individuals engaged in high- and low-skilled occupations so as to starkly control for differences in education, training and skills. The results suggest that residential neighbourhoods do matter for individuals’ income, although the effect is stronger for low-skilled individuals. For both high- and low-skilled individuals, their workplace group skill has the greatest effect on income, but the effect is negative for high-skilled and positive for low-skilled individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
network effects, neighbourhoods, income, workplace, high-skilled occupations
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-34070 (URN)10.1080/00343404.2016.1236187 (DOI)000417656300005 ()2-s2.0-85006847808 (Scopus ID)IHHCESISIS (Local ID)IHHCESISIS (Archive number)IHHCESISIS (OAI)
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4560-1905

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