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Stenmarker, M., Björk, M., Golsäter, M. & Enskär, K. (2023). Everyday life during the childhood cancer trajectory—childhood cancer survivors’ descriptions of the role of caring support. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, 4, Article ID 1098933.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Everyday life during the childhood cancer trajectory—childhood cancer survivors’ descriptions of the role of caring support
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, ISSN 2673-6861, Vol. 4, article id 1098933Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Being diagnosed with cancer in childhood often has a direct impact on the child’s opportunities to participate in activities and the child’s sense of belonging in different life situations. Experiences of illness in youth affect the lives of these individuals in numerous ways and they need pronounced support to regain their normal life after treatment.

Purpose: To illustrate how childhood cancer survivors describe the role of the caring support provided by healthcare professionals at diagnosis and during the cancer trajectory.

Methods: A mixed methods approach was applied. Swanson’s Theory of Caring was used to deductively analyze the answers in a study-specific questionnaire with Likert scales (1–5). Descriptive and comparative statistics and exploratory factor analyses were performed.

Results: Sixty-two former patients, diagnosed with solid tumors/lymphoma in 1983 to 2003 in Sweden, participated. The mean time passed since treatment was 15.7 years. Swanson’s caring processes Being with and Doing for were the most prominent loading categorical factor indicators. Higher scores for healthcare professionals being emotionally present (Being with), doing for others what they would do for themselves (Doing for) and being willing to understand the sick child’s situation (Knowing) were highlighted by survivors older than 30 years, compared to those younger than 30 years (p=0.041, p=0.045, and p=0.013, respectively). An increased vulnerability regarding their ability to cope with difficulties (Maintain belief) was found among participants who were treated during adolescence, related to schoolchildren (p=0.048), and among those who had been treated with extra-cranial irradiation in comparison with no extra-cranial irradiation (p=0.004). The role of having a partner in comparison with being single was underlined among those who felt they had acquired the tools they needed to take care of themselves (Enabling) (p=0.013). The total explained variance was 63%.

Conclusions: A person-centered care approach during treatment for childhood cancer, reflected by a caring model, highlights the role of healthcare professionals being emotionally present, involving children, performing actions, and with an approach that has potential long-term implications. Childhood cancer patients and survivors need not only clinically competent professionals, but professionals who provide caring interactions with compassion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
childhood cancer survivor, child, adolescents, swanson caring theory, participation, every day life, long term health conditions
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Pediatrics Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-61326 (URN)10.3389/fresc.2023.1098933 (DOI)001019074000001 ()37397267 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174960813 (Scopus ID)GOA;;886497 (Local ID)GOA;;886497 (Archive number)GOA;;886497 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation
Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Zhou, L., Hong, J., Henricson, M., Qin, R., Dai, Y., Enskär, K., . . . Browall, M. (2023). Factors associated with posttraumatic growth among spouses of women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer: A cross-sectional study. Nursing Open, 10(2), 630-640
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with posttraumatic growth among spouses of women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer: A cross-sectional study
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2023 (English)In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 630-640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the factors that are associated with posttraumatic growth among spouses of women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer.

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Methods: A convenience sample of 312 spouses of women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer was recruited from two comprehensive hospitals in China, from March 2018 to March 2020. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related characteristics, posttraumatic growth, perceived social support and coping were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The methods were guided by the STROBE checklist.

Results: The mean score of posttraumatic growth was 46.7 (standard deviation = 16.7). The associated factors of posttraumatic growth were spouses' age, perceived social support, problem-focused coping, dysfunctional coping (e.g. denial) and cancer treatment received by partners, which accounted for 34% of total posttraumatic growth score.

Patient or public contribution: All participants contributed to the conducting of this study by completing self-reported questionnaires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
coping, gynaecological cancer, posttraumatic growth, social support, spouses
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58485 (URN)10.1002/nop2.1329 (DOI)000847429100001 ()36040057 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85137188454 (Scopus ID)GOA;intsam;831442 (Local ID)GOA;intsam;831442 (Archive number)GOA;intsam;831442 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-09-15 Created: 2022-09-15 Last updated: 2023-04-26Bibliographically approved
Yang, Y., Granlund, M., Tao, F., Tao, S., Zou, L., Wu, X., . . . Enskär, K. (2023). Patterns of smartphone usage associated with depressive symptoms in nursing students. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, Article ID 1136126.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of smartphone usage associated with depressive symptoms in nursing students
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 14, article id 1136126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Rather than focusing on the activities that the smartphone has been used for, the existing literature frequently focuses on the association between problematic use of smartphone independent of the content of use (self-reported) and depressive symptoms in youth. This study aims to explore patterns of smartphone usage and the association with depressive symptoms in nursing students.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study of nursing freshmen (n = 1, 716) was conducted between October and November 2018. Participants were recruited from three Chinese public medical universities using stratified cluster sampling. Self-rated frequency of 12 different smartphone activities over the preceding week was evaluated. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).

RESULTS: Of the 1,716 students recruited, 1,424 (83.0%) were girls, and the mean [SD] age was 18.90 [1.39] years. Using principal component analysis (PCA), two typical usage patterns were indicated. The "entertainment pattern" factor included a high frequency of streaming images or videos, searching for information, chatting online, online shopping, downloading, reading online, checking social media sites, taking pictures or videos, and playing games. The "communication pattern" had a high frequency of emailing, texting, and calling. Using logistic regression models, the association between smartphone usage patterns and depressive symptoms was tested. The "communication pattern" was significantly associated with a 53% increase in the odds of moderate and above depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.529; 95% CI = 1.286-1.818; p < 0.001), controlling for a set of socio-demographic and smartphone use covariates.

DISCUSSION: This study provides insights into how the patterns of smartphone usage are associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in nursing students. It indicates that it may primarily be how we use our smartphones rather than how much we use them that poses a risk for depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
depressive symptoms, principal component analysis, problematic smartphone use, smartphone usage pattern, students
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62296 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1136126 (DOI)001048855600001 ()37599870 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168291414 (Scopus ID)GOA;intsam;899182 (Local ID)GOA;intsam;899182 (Archive number)GOA;intsam;899182 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Stenmarker, M., Oldin, C., Golsäter, M., Blennow, M., Enskär, K., Nilsson, M. P. & Schollin Ask, L. (2021). Child health professionals' experiences of the introduction and successful implementation of rotavirus vaccination in Sweden. Acta Paediatrica, 110(10), 2833-2841
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child health professionals' experiences of the introduction and successful implementation of rotavirus vaccination in Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 10, p. 2833-2841Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To explore child health professionals' experiences of the early implementation of the rotavirus vaccination in the two regions that first introduced this vaccination in Sweden.

Methods: A descriptive and repeated cross-sectional study based on a digital study-specific questionnaire with a baseline in 2014 and with a 2-year follow-up in 2016. The study population consisted of nurses and doctors working in child health centres in the health care regions of Stockholm and Jönköping.

Results: In Stockholm, a larger proportion of the respondents (n = 355) had concerns in 2014, in comparison with the respondents in Jönköping (n = 101), mostly about the vaccination being a new and time-consuming task (60% versus 23%). In 2016, the overall attitude to vaccination was more positive in both regions and the levels of concern about increased workload were reduced (Stockholm, n = 519, 39%, versus Jönköping, n = 96, 10%). Challenges before and after the introduction in both regions were particularly related to how to give information about the vaccine's potential increased risk of intussusception.

Conclusion: The gap between respondents' knowledge, attitudes and concerns pre- and post-vaccination introduction was larger in Stockholm compared to Jönköping. In both regions, overall, the implementation of the rotavirus vaccination was perceived as being easier than expected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
child health services, experience, health care professionals, rotavirus, vaccination
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54219 (URN)10.1111/apa.16038 (DOI)000678157800001 ()34297362 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85111358268 (Scopus ID)HOA;;757263 (Local ID)HOA;;757263 (Archive number)HOA;;757263 (OAI)
Funder
Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Sweden
Available from: 2021-08-13 Created: 2021-08-13 Last updated: 2021-12-12Bibliographically approved
Golsäter, M., Knutsson, S. & Enskär, K. (2021). Children's experiences of information, advice and support from healthcare professionals when their parent has a cancer disease: experiences from an oncological outpatient department. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 50, Article ID 101893.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's experiences of information, advice and support from healthcare professionals when their parent has a cancer disease: experiences from an oncological outpatient department
2021 (English)In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 50, article id 101893Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This study was carried out in order to evaluate children's experiences after taking part in the pilot clinical intervention “See Me” aimed at supporting children as relatives.

Method

A qualitative explorative design with interviews was chosen, with analyses using an inductive approach. Interviews were conducted with 19 children (9 aged 7–12 years and 10 aged 13–18 years). The younger children were asked to draw a picture of a person in hospital, using the Child Drawing: hospital (CD:H) instrument to measure the child's level of anxiety. The older children completed the Caring Professional Scale (CPS) as a measure of the caring approach in their encounter with the nurse.

Results

The interviews with the children show that: they felt expected and welcomed at the hospital; they needed knowledge about their parent's situation; they needed information and participation based on their individual situation; and they needed the nurse to offer them information and support. The results from the pictures showed that one child had above-average levels of anxiety. The older children reported that the nurses were Competent Practitioners, but to a lesser degree that they were Compassionate Healers.

Conclusions

The results of this pilot study indicate that the structure of “See Me” could be used as a starting point to ensure that children as relatives receive information, advice, and support. Further the results indicate that both CD:H and CPS could be used to evaluated children's experiences of support when a parent has a long-term illness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Children as relatives, Cancer, Clinical intervention, Support, Sweden
National Category
Pediatrics Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-51519 (URN)10.1016/j.ejon.2020.101893 (DOI)000632612300006 ()33465701 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85099401929 (Scopus ID)PPembargo12;;1518957 (Local ID)PPembargo12;;1518957 (Archive number)PPembargo12;;1518957 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-01-18 Created: 2021-01-18 Last updated: 2022-01-21Bibliographically approved
Zhou, L., Hong, J.-F., Qin, R.-M., Henricson, M., Stenmarker, M., Browall, M. & Enskär, K. (2021). Post-traumatic growth and its influencing factors among Chinese women diagnosed with gynecological cancer: A cross-sectional study. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 51, Article ID 101903.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-traumatic growth and its influencing factors among Chinese women diagnosed with gynecological cancer: A cross-sectional study
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2021 (English)In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 51, article id 101903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The experience of cancer could lead to positive psychological changes following the struggle with diagnosis and treatment. Understanding post-traumatic growth and its influencing factors in women affected by gynecological cancer is essential to enhance their possibility of achieving positive changes. The purpose of this study was to describe the post-traumatic growth level and explore the influencing factors of post-traumatic growth in Chinese women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Method: A cross-sectional survey with a convenience sampling method was employed to collect data using the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Distress Disclosure Index (DDI), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The questionnaires were administered to 344 participants recruited from two hospitals in Hefei City, the capital of Anhui Province in China, between March 2018 and March 2019. All statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric tests. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to distinguish the intergroup differences. Correlations were evaluated with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Results: Total score for PTGI was 56.5 (range 48.0–68.0). The subscale with the highest centesimal score in the PTGI was appreciation of life and the lowest was spiritual change. The top five items with the highest scores of PTGI belonged to appreciating life, personal strength, and relating to others. Self-disclosure, confrontation, avoidance, acceptance-resignation, perceived social support, education level, cancer type and the place they lived had significant influence on post-traumatic growth. Conclusions: The findings indicate that women who have high levels of perceived social support, confrontation, avoidance, self-disclosure and education level tend to experience more post-traumatic growth, while, conversely, high levels of acceptance-resignation have a negative influence on promoting post-traumatic growth. These meaningful findings propose new perspectives for promoting post-traumatic growth in Chinese women diagnosed with gynecological cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Coping strategies, Gynecological cancer, Perceived social support, Post-traumatic growth, Self-disclosure
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-51995 (URN)10.1016/j.ejon.2021.101903 (DOI)000635184400004 ()33618228 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85101132435 (Scopus ID);intsam;726169 (Local ID);intsam;726169 (Archive number);intsam;726169 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-03-08 Created: 2021-03-08 Last updated: 2023-04-26Bibliographically approved
Knutsson, S., Golsäter, M. & Enskär, K. (2021). The meaning of being a visiting child of a seriously ill parent receiving care at the ICU. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 16(1), Article ID 1999884.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The meaning of being a visiting child of a seriously ill parent receiving care at the ICU
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 1999884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Children's visits to the ICU are still restricted, and more focus on the child's own needs and experiences are needed. The aim of this study is to illustrate the meaning of being a visiting child of a seriously ill parent receiving care at the ICU.

Method

A qualitative descriptive design was used, with open-ended interviews with seven children (6-18 years) performed and analysed using a phenomenological research approach.

Findings

Being a visiting child of a seriously ill parent receiving care at the ICU is described as a life situation taking place in an unfamiliar environment, characterized by a heartfelt, genuine desire to be there, in an interdependence entailing offering a loved one the help they need while at the same time being seen in a compassionate way and being able to share, revealing a sudden awakening of an inner truth of reality and a sense of a healing wisdom of understanding.

Conclusions

The children felt good when they visited their ill parent, but at the same time not fully involved, and desired a more compassionate, caring approach by the nurses. Improvements are needed in how to approach visiting children in a more individual and caring way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Visiting, child, intensive care, information, caring
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-55151 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2021.1999884 (DOI)000718608500001 ()34775932 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119260069 (Scopus ID)GOA;;778863 (Local ID)GOA;;778863 (Archive number)GOA;;778863 (OAI)
Funder
Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Sweden
Available from: 2021-11-25 Created: 2021-11-25 Last updated: 2021-12-03Bibliographically approved
Björklund, A.-C., Granlund, M., Santacroce, S. J., Enskär, K., Carlstein, S. & Björk, M. (2021). Using ICF to Describe Problems With Functioning in Everyday Life for Children Who Completed Treatment for Brain Tumor: An Analysis Based on Professionals’ Documentation. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, 2, Article ID 708265.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using ICF to Describe Problems With Functioning in Everyday Life for Children Who Completed Treatment for Brain Tumor: An Analysis Based on Professionals’ Documentation
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, ISSN 2673-6861, Vol. 2, article id 708265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Children treated for brain tumors often experience persistent problems affecting their activity performance and participation in everyday life, especially in school. Linking these problems to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) classification system can be described as affecting body function, activity performance, and/or participation. Services involved in the everyday life of the child have different focus and goals when meeting the child in context, which advantage the use of ICF to overcome this impediment to follow-up and provide comprehensive support for children who have completed treatment for a brain tumor.

Aim: The aim of the study was to use the ICF classification system to describe how professionals in healthcare, habilitation, and school document problems with everyday life functioning at body, activity, and participation levels for children who completed treatment for a brain tumor.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of records from healthcare, habilitation, and school concerning nine children completed treatment for brain tumor was implemented. Identified problems in everyday life were linked to ICF codes. Descriptive statistics of ICF-linked code frequency supplemented by network visualization diagrams viewing the co-occurrence between codes within the body, activity participation, and environmental components were performed.

Results: Most documented problems were found in healthcare records, whereas the documentation in habilitation and school was sparse. The frequently occurring codes, independent of record source, were linked to the body function component, and ICF-linked problems in habilitation and school were salient in the activity and participation component. To gain a holistic picture of relations between ICF codes and problems, network visualization diagrams were used to illustrate clusters of problems.

Conclusion: Code prevalence likely reflects where healthcare professionals and educators focus their attention when meeting the needs of children treated for a brain tumor in context. To maximize the comprehensive view of functioning and participation of children in everyday life, the full range of difficulties regarding body impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions must be identified and linked to each other in patterns of co-occurrence, which the ICF facilitate. However, ICF provides no guidance on how to identify networks of problems within the body, activity, and participation. Identifying such networks is important for building comprehensive interventions for children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
child, brain tumor, ICF, documentation, problem, everyday life
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54713 (URN)10.3389/fresc.2021.708265 (DOI)001008690100001 ()36188761 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135959073 (Scopus ID)GOA;intsam;767101 (Local ID)GOA;intsam;767101 (Archive number)GOA;intsam;767101 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, TJ2016/0032
Available from: 2021-09-23 Created: 2021-09-23 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Stenmarker, M., Enskär, K., Björk, M., Pinkava, M., Rolander, B. & Golsäter, M. (2020). Childhood cancer survivors: Self-reported quality of life during and after the cancer trajectory. Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, 7(4), 336-345
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood cancer survivors: Self-reported quality of life during and after the cancer trajectory
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2020 (English)In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 2347-5625, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This cross‑sectional study aimed to present how the unique cancer experience in childhood influences young adults’ quality of life (QOL).

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to code and analyze a study‑specific questionnaire (133 items). These data are presented in accordance with a conceptual QOL/health‑related QOL model.

Results: The participants included 34 women and 28 men (n = 62) diagnosed with solid tumors/lymphoma in the period 1983–2003, who had been treated at the same childhood cancer center in Sweden. The current mean age was 28.7 years (range: 18–45, standard deviation [SD]: 6.3, median value: 28.5), the mean age at diagnosis was 12.9 years (range: 8–17, SD: 2.3, median value: 13), and the mean time elapsed since treatment was 15.7 years (range: 4–28, SD: 2.4, median value: 15). The response rate was 65%. Higher levels of psychological maturity were reported by women versus men (P = 0.01) and by survivors diagnosed with cancer during adolescence versus school age (P = 0.04). Male participants reported lower levels of physical limitations (P = 0.03) and emotional distress when being of treatment and in contact with health care services (P = 0.04). The strongest factor influencing QOL during therapy was parental support (97%), while the strongest factors after therapy were to live a life similar to peers (82%) and to be satisfied with one’s life situation (81%). During treatment, limitations influencing QOL were related to lack of school support (2%), and after treatment, to deteriorated relationships with siblings (5%).

Conclusions: Life‑threatening diseases at young ages have long‑term psychosocial effects with ambiguous results at multiple levels. To capture these experiences, we recommend clinical studies that are based on conceptual clarifying frameworks and adopt a quantitative and qualitative research approach. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2020
Keywords
Childhood cancer survivors, pediatric cancer, psychosocial issues, quality of life
National Category
Nursing Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-50821 (URN)10.4103/apjon.apjon_22_20 (DOI)000573926000008 ()33062828 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85092519988 (Scopus ID)POA HHJ 2020 (Local ID)POA HHJ 2020 (Archive number)POA HHJ 2020 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-10-12 Created: 2020-10-12 Last updated: 2021-06-03Bibliographically approved
Enskär, K., Darcy, L., Björk, M., Knutsson, S. & Huus, K. (2020). Experiences of young children with cancer and their parents with nurses' caring practices during the cancer trajectory. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 37(1), 21-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of young children with cancer and their parents with nurses' caring practices during the cancer trajectory
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children with cancer require repeated hospitalizations and the family's everyday life and routines undergo change. Concrete descriptions of how nurses act when caring for children with cancer throughout the various phases of care and treatment are sparsely highlighted in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe young children with cancer and their parents' experiences of nurses' caring practices over a 3-year period, from diagnosis to follow-up. This study is based on semistructured interviews with 25 children newly diagnosed with cancer, aged 1 to 6 years, and their parents, connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. Child and parent data were analyzed with a deductive content analysis using Swanson's theory of caring. The result shows that nurse care practices directed toward young children with cancer and their parents are to some extent similar across a 3-year period from diagnosis to follow-up but also differ in some ways. Nurses' caring practices aim to support children and parents in the transition to a "new normal." Child- and family-friendly care processes include the following: creating hope and a trustful relationship, asking rather than assuming, providing knowledge and information, performing tasks skillfully, displaying an interest in the child's and parents' life outside the hospital, and helping the family to trust in the future and other health care providers. Based on these results, we recommend the development of a standardized and structured nursing care plan or clinical guideline with detailed information on how to carry out clinical nurse care practices in the different phases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2020
Keywords
Swanson caring theory, cancer, caring, children
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46751 (URN)10.1177/1043454219874007 (DOI)000488438000001 ()31526068 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074264023 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8596-6020

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