Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Strumsky, D., Bettencourt, L. & Lobo, J. (2023). Agglomeration effects as spatially embedded social interactions: identifying urban scaling beyond metropolitan areas. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 50(7), 1964-1980
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agglomeration effects as spatially embedded social interactions: identifying urban scaling beyond metropolitan areas
2023 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1964-1980Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agglomeration is the tell-tale sign of cities and urbanization. Identifying and measuring agglomeration economies has been achieved by a variety of means and by various disciplines, including urban economics, quantitative geography, and regional science. Agglomeration is typically expressed as the non-linear dependence of many different urban quantities on city size, proxied by population. The identification and measurement of agglomeration effects is of course dependent on the choice of spatial units. Metropolitan areas (or their equivalent) have been the preferred spatial units for urban scaling modeling. The many issues surrounding the delineation of metropolitan areas have tended to obscure that urban scaling is principally about the measurable consequences of social and economic interactions embedded in physical space and facilitated by physical proximity and infrastructure. These generative processes obviously must exist in the spatial subcomponents of metropolitan areas. Using data for counties and urbanized areas in the United States, we show that the generative processes that give rise to scaling effects are not an artifact of metropolitan definitions and exist at smaller spatial scales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
gross domestic product counties, metropolitan areas, social mixing, urban areas
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59721 (URN)10.1177/23998083221148198 (DOI)000949187800001 ()2-s2.0-85147098813 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;860458 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;860458 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;860458 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-02-06 Created: 2023-02-06 Last updated: 2023-10-12Bibliographically approved
Lobo, J., Alberti, M., Allen-Dumas, M., Bettencourt, L. M. A., Beukes, A., Bojórquez Tapia, L. A., . . . Wu, J. (2021). A convergence research perspective on graduate education for sustainable urban systems science. npj Urban Sustainability, 1, Article ID 39.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A convergence research perspective on graduate education for sustainable urban systems science
Show others...
2021 (English)In: npj Urban Sustainability, E-ISSN 2661-8001, Vol. 1, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable urban systems (SUS) science is a new science integrating work across established and emerging disciplines, using diverse methods, and addressing issues at local, regional, national, and global scales. Advancing SUS requires the next generation of scholars and practitioners to excel at synthesis across disciplines and possess the skills to innovate in the realms of research, policy, and stakeholder engagement. We outline key tenets of graduate education in SUS, informed by historical and global perspectives. The sketch is an invitation to discuss how graduates in SUS should be trained to engage with the challenges and opportunities presented by continuing urbanization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58296 (URN)10.1038/s42949-021-00044-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-08-23 Created: 2022-08-23 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved
Strumsky, D., Lobo, J. & Mellander, C. (2021). As different as night and day: Scaling analysis of Swedish urban areas and regional labor markets. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 48(2), 231-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As different as night and day: Scaling analysis of Swedish urban areas and regional labor markets
2021 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The urban scaling framework views cities as integrated socioeconomic networks of interactions embedded in physical space. A crucial property of cities highlighted by this approach is that cities act to mix populations, a mixing both facilitated and constrained by physical infrastructure. Operationalizing a view of cities as settings for social interactions and population mixing—assembling a set of spatial units of analysis which contain the relevant social aspects of urban settlements—implies choices about the use of existing data, the assignation of data to locations, and the delineation of the boundaries of urban areas, all of which are far from trivial research decisions. Metropolitan areas have become the spatial unit of choice in urban economics and economic geography for investigating urban life as they are seen as encompassing the distinct phenomena of “urbanity” (proximity, density) and social interactions indirectly captured through a unified labor market. However, the population size and areal extent of metropolitan areas, as most often defined, render opaque the distinction between two salient types of urban population: those who work and those who reside within a metropolitan area. These two sets of individuals, among whom of course there is great overlap, putatively engage in different economic and social interactions which are in turn differently embedded in physical space. Availing ourselves of Swedish micro-level data for two distinct spatial units, tätorts (“dense localites”) and local labor markets, we can distinguish which types of populations and which types of spatial agglomerations are responsible for the observed scaling effects on productivity and physical infrastructure. We find that spatially contiguous labor markets are not enough to generate some of the most salient urban scaling phenomena. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
labor markets, metropolitan areas, tätorts, Urban scaling
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46289 (URN)10.1177/2399808319861974 (DOI)000476295100001 ()2-s2.0-85069056378 (Scopus ID);intsam;1353168 (Local ID);intsam;1353168 (Archive number);intsam;1353168 (OAI)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Smirnova, O., Strumsky, D. & Qualls, A. C. (2021). Do federal regulations beget innovation? Legislative policy and the role of executive orders. Energy Policy, 158, Article ID 112570.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do federal regulations beget innovation? Legislative policy and the role of executive orders
2021 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 158, article id 112570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our research note focuses on whether policy changes in the transportation sector contribute to green innovations, measured as patents. We explore federal policies, specifically energy policies such as Energy Policy Act of 1992 or 2005, that provide incentives for the development of environmentally friendly technologies in transportation. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, we construct and test several novel policy measures while controlling for other factors that may influence green transportation innovations. We develop a unique legislative timeline with the use of key-informant interviews, literature searches, and legislative updates reviews. Only one policy variable (executive orders) appears to have a positive effect on the number of patents in green transportation innovation sphere. High capital expenditures for pollution abatement decrease innovation activity, while high operating expenditures increase innovation activity. The federal policies over the time period analyzed seem to create uncertainty rather than provide a clear incentive for innovation. The executive orders may affect innovation levels; further tests are needed with the changes in political leadership. The results of our research note signal that stronger and more consistent incentives at federal level may be necessary to realize desired policy outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Abatement costs, Executive orders, Patents, Policy impacts, Transportation innovation, Costs, Energy policy, Uncertainty analysis, Executive order, Federal policies, Federal regulations, Green transportations, Innovation activity, Policy changes, Policy impact, Transportation sector, Patents and inventions, abatement cost, federal system, innovation, legislation, regulatory approach, transportation
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58261 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112570 (DOI)000703562600002 ()2-s2.0-85115032141 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Arnold, M., Tainter, J. A. & Strumsky, D. (2019). Productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies. Energy Policy, 124, 54-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies
2019 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 124, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuels are a regular focus of public policy. The productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies is rarely addressed either in research or policy. Yet as innovation in any field grows complex and costly it can experience reductions in productivity and diminishing returns to investments. We examine here the productivity of investments in the technologies used to produce biofuels, using data from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The results show that the productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies is declining. Continuation of this trend will in time force reductions in research investments in biofuel technologies. We discuss policy approaches to address declining returns to research investments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biofuels, Complexity, Energy, Energy policy, Innovation, Patents, R&D, USPTO, Economics, Investments, Patents and inventions, Productivity, Force reductions, Policy approach, Research investment, U.s. patent and trademark offices, alternative energy, biofuel, research and development, technology adoption, United States
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58263 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2018.09.005 (DOI)000453642600006 ()2-s2.0-85054203361 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Lobo, J. & Strumsky, D. (2019). Sources of inventive novelty: two patent classification schemas, same story. Scientometrics, 120(1), 19-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of inventive novelty: two patent classification schemas, same story
2019 (English)In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An essential feature of a modern patenting system is a classification schema for organizing, indexing and coding the technical information contained in a patent. Patent classification systems make it possible for patent examiners and prospective inventors to search through existing patents in order to find information pertinent to evaluating a patent application’s purported novelty. Patent classification systems also support the construction of a taxonomy for the various sources of inventive novelty embodied in patented inventions. Until 2013 the U.S. Patent Office utilized the United States Patent Classification system and since then it has used the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system; these two systems implement very different classification logics with the CPC aiming at greater granularity. Here we examine the extent to which the two patent classification systems generate similar historical narratives as to the sources of inventive novelty. Despite the differences in classification principles, common patterns are revealed regardless of which classification system is used to identify technologies. Invention is primarily a cumulative process where new inventions are developed from combining existing technologies. Refinements (the re-use of existing technologies) and combinations of previously existing technological functionalities predominate in the patent record, while inventions embodying previously unseen technologies are very rare. The rate at which inventions representing non-refinements have been introduced into the stock of inventions has kept pace with the generation of inventions representing refinements, thereby feeding the combinatorial process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
CPC, Inventive novelty, Novelty taxonomy, Patent classification systems, USPC
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58262 (URN)10.1007/s11192-019-03102-2 (DOI)000471656400002 ()2-s2.0-85065399294 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Shutters, S. T., Lobo, J., Muneepeerakul, R., Strumsky, D., Mellander, C., Brachert, M., . . . Bettencourt, L. M. .. (2018). Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations. PLOS ONE, 13(5), Article ID e0196915.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations
Show others...
2018 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0196915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban economies are composed of diverse activities, embodied in labor occupations, which depend on one another to produce goods and services. Yet little is known about how the nature and intensity of these interdependences change as cities increase in population size and economic complexity. Understanding the relationship between occupational interdependencies and the number of occupations defining an urban economy is relevant because interdependence within a networked system has implications for system resilience and for how easily can the structure of the network be modified. Here, we represent the interdependencies among occupations in a city as a non-spatial information network, where the strengths of interdependence between pairs of occupations determine the strengths of the links in the network. Using those quantified link strengths we calculate a single metric of interdependence–or connectedness–which is equivalent to the density of a city’s weighted occupational network. We then examine urban systems in six industrialized countries, analyzing how the density of urban occupational networks changes with network size, measured as the number of unique occupations present in an urban workforce. We find that in all six countries, density, or economic interdependence, increases superlinearly with the number of distinct occupations. Because connections among occupations represent flows of information, we provide evidence that connectivity scales superlinearly with network size in information networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2018
Keywords
article, developed country, human, occupation
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41090 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0196915 (DOI)000431481700032 ()2-s2.0-85046632009 (Scopus ID);intsam;1236525 (Local ID);intsam;1236525 (Archive number);intsam;1236525 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Tainter, J. A., Strumsky, D., Taylor, T. G., Arnold, M. & Lobo, J. (2017). Depletion vs. innovation the fundamental question of sustainability. In: R. Burlando & A. Tartaglia (Ed.), Physical Limits to Economic Growth: Perspectives of Economic, Social, and Complexity Science (pp. 65-93). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depletion vs. innovation the fundamental question of sustainability
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Physical Limits to Economic Growth: Perspectives of Economic, Social, and Complexity Science / [ed] R. Burlando & A. Tartaglia, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 65-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Near the end of World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt asked Vannevar Bush, director of the wartime Office of Scientific Research and Development, to prepare a report on the post-war role of government in promoting science. In his famous report, Bush wrote: “Advances in science will … bring higher standards of living, will lead to the prevention or cure of diseases, will promote conservation of our limited national resources, and will assure means of defence against aggression” (Bush, 1945: 10). This statement, so characteristic of our faith in science, became the basis for the emphasis on innovation that we know today. It is a system that has brought material prosperity in the industrialized countries and high levels of employment. Innovation has fostered the complexity of modern societies. Bush’s statement reflects what is called technological optimism, a faith in technology to solve problems. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2017
Series
Routledge Studies in Ecological Economics
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58264 (URN)2-s2.0-85045050094 (Scopus ID)9781138231603 (ISBN)9780367593506 (ISBN)9781315314969 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Fragkias, M., Lobo, J., Strumsky, D. & Seto, K. C. (2017). Does size matter? Scaling of CO2 emissions and U.S. Urban Areas. In: Kimberly Etingoff (Ed.), Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy (pp. 79-98). Waretown, NJ, USA: Apple Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does size matter? Scaling of CO2 emissions and U.S. Urban Areas
2017 (English)In: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy / [ed] Kimberly Etingoff, Waretown, NJ, USA: Apple Academic Press , 2017, p. 79-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Waretown, NJ, USA: Apple Academic Press, 2017
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58265 (URN)2-s2.0-85052326218 (Scopus ID)9781771883184 (ISBN)9781771883191 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Youn, H., Bettencourt, L. M. A., Lobo, J., Strumsky, D., Samaniego, H. & West, G. B. (2016). Scaling and universality in urban economic diversification. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13(114), Article ID 20150937.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaling and universality in urban economic diversification
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 13, no 114, article id 20150937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding cities is central to addressing major global challenges from climate change to economic resilience. Although increasingly perceived as fundamental socio-economic units, the detailed fabric of urban economic activities is only recently accessible to comprehensive analyses with the availability of large datasets. Here, we study abundances of business categories across US metropolitan statistical areas, and provide a framework for measuring the intrinsic diversity of economic activities that transcends scales of the classification scheme. A universal structure common to all cities is revealed, manifesting self-similarity in internal economic structure as well as aggregated metrics (GDP, patents, crime).We present a simple mathematical derivation of the universality, and provide a model, together with its economic implications of open-ended diversity created by urbanization, for understanding the observed empirical distribution. Given the universal distribution, scaling analyses for individual business categories enable us to determine their relative abundances as a function of city size. These results shed light on the processes of economic differentiation with scale, suggesting a general structure for the growth of national economies as integrated urban systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of London, 2016
Keywords
Power laws, Scaling laws, Universality, Urban indicators, Urban scaling, Climate change, Economic analysis, Economics, Comprehensive analysis, Economic diversification, Empirical distributions, Mathematical derivation, Power-law, Urban growth, Article, commercial phenomena, economic aspect, economic development, environment, city planning, economic model, female, human, male, United States, Humans, Models, Economic, Urban Renewal
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58266 (URN)10.1098/rsif.2015.0937 (DOI)000374959000012 ()26790997 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84958611722 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4101-4279

Search in DiVA

Show all publications