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  • Suleman Nasir, Illaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Kesici, Ilknur
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Social Sustainability within the Manufacturing Industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Persson, Tony
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö inom Individ- och familjeomsorgen i Jönköpings kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a quantitative secondary analysis of existing data from psycho-social working environment questionnaires for the municipality of Jönköping. The goal of the analysis is to study differences between two parts of the individual- and family care, the public authority part and the outpatient care, as well as differences in sex and age-categories. To accomplish this, the methodology is to analyse the existing data from the 2015 questionnaire on psycho-social work environment that the municipality answered. This questionnaire is called QPS/QPS-Nordic and stands for Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work. Subsequently, significant findings of differences have been studied and discussed. The result of the analysis shows that while there are some differences, there is many similarities between the two groups. The study does not present any specific causes for the existing significant differences but clarifies which areas the differences occur within. Furthermore, the study gives suggestions for further research of how the differences could be clarified, and what the relevance is for future research into the Swedish social services work performance. The purpose is to spread information about Swedish social worker’s working environment and to figure out where there are any differences. Do social workers at public authority mark their working environment different from the outpatient care workers or are their similar in their beliefs.     

  • Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    An Infinite Replicated Softmax Model for Topic Modeling2019In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 16th International Conference, MDAI 2019, Milan, Italy, September 4–6, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Gabriella Pasi, Marco Viviani, Springer, 2019, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the infinite replicated Softmax model (iRSM) as an adaptive topic model, utilizing the combination of the infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (iRBM) and the replicated Softmax model (RSM). In our approach, the iRBM extends the RBM by enabling its hidden layer to adapt to the data at hand, while the RSM allows for modeling low-dimensional latent semantic representation from a corpus. The combination of the two results is a method that is able to self-adapt to the number of topics within the document corpus and hence, renders manual identification of the correct number of topics superfluous. We propose a hybrid training approach to effectively improve the performance of the iRSM. An empirical evaluation is performed on a standard data set and the results are compared to the results of a baseline topic model. The results show that the iRSM adapts its hidden layer size to the data and when trained in the proposed hybrid manner outperforms the base RSM model.

  • Ahmad, Hudallah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ulfvengren, Julia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    LCA-SIMULERING FÖR EN MODULBYGGNAD GENOM FYRA OLIKA LIVSCYKLER2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a severe housing shortage in Sweden, with a deficiency of schools and preschools. At the same time, carbon dioxide emission is measuring higher than ever and the realization of environmental crisis is clear. The building sector is responsible a high percentage of carbon dioxide emissions. Calculation for the climate impact can be implemented through life cycle assessment (LCA), directives are requested on how to build through an LCA perspective. The study investigates modular buildings that constitute an efficient and flexible way of managing the building shortage. The aim of this research was to get answers from an ecologically sustainable perspective to what provides more advantageous to process modules when the time- limited building permit expires and a module is needed somewhere else, with or without extra isolation.

    Method: A quantitative methodology was used to accomplish the aim. The climate impact of four different types of lifecycles simulates by using the software Anavitor. Other methods used for data acquisition was document analysis, calculation of specific energy use and transmission loss.  

    Findings: The results present advantageous choices for stakeholders to pick after the time-limited building permits expire and a new module is demanded at another place. The study shows that less carbon dioxide emission is produced when reusing the module rather than demolish and produce a new module. Energy savings can be made which reduces the total climate impact of the module that are additionally insulated. 

    Implications: The conclusion the group could deduct was that the production and manufacturing stage has a significant impact on the total climate impact that a renovation and non-manufacturing scenario is always more advantageous. By adding additionell isolation savings on total carbon dioxide emission can be made despite increased material use.  

    Limitations: The results are limited to a life cycle assessment based on a module’s envelope as the interior and technical equipment is the same for all scenarios. The study was based on a standard module in which the equipment has no effect on the results. The result was initially specific, but with the help of calculation of the breakpoint for independent transport distances, a general validity could be given. 

  • Eriksson, Gusten
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Persson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Organisational ambidexterity in manufacturing SMEs: An empirical study of managers’ and workers’ perceptions of ambidextrous elements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisational ambidexterity is considered a key to company survival and performance. Despite this, organisational ambidexterity is still a poorly understood phenomenon, especially in an SME context. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how the compliance with ambidextrous elements is perceived at different levels in manufacturing SMEs, to increase the understanding of organisational ambidexterity in this context. The empirical data was collected through a combination of questionnaire and interview. The case companies in this report perceive that they comply stronger with contextual elements than with structural elements. The strong compliance with contextual elements is motivated by the lack of hierarchies, flexibility in the company, different management structure and low number of employees. This allows employees to perform the contextual elements such as initiative-taking, cooperating, brokering and multitasking. The structural elements including e.g. vision, values, strategies, senior team responsibility and alignment are perceived differently at different  hierarchal levels, indicating that there are subcultures within the hierarchal levels within a company. The biggest difference can be found between the middle managers and the top managers,. Workers perceive that they are not included in explorationb within the company, and that the exploration occur more sporadically than those for exploitation. The definitions of exploration and exploitation vary between the companies which results in a lack of consensus. This makes it difficult for the companies to perform the changes necessary in order to develop and achieve long-term sustainable growth i.e. economical sustainability. The managerial implication of this report concerns four actions: (1) create a common definition for exploration, (2) develop goals for exploration, (3) communicate for buy-in and (4) involve all employees.

  • Karvik, Linus
    et al.
    Toft Eklund, Lisa
    Upplevd atmosfär av blått respektive rött vertikalljus i en restaurangmiljö jämfört med färgade vertikala ytor.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hultgren, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Etik och moral i film: En studie om filmers relevans i undervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this religious didactic study is to investigate how ethics and moral can be interpreted in three different movies. The purpose behind this study is to get a better understanding of how these movies could be used in the subject religion within the college school system. This study of use a qualitative method analysis when studying the films, where the films are interpreted from three different ethical theories such as Utilitarianism, Virtue ethics and Deontological ethics. The quantitative method focuses on social convention in order to fully understand the bigger picture. The social aspects are relevant since this study will examine to see if the movies are fit to be material in the classroom. In order to make this clear I will tie the movies to the college pass marks for the subject Religion. Due to this, the control documents and the curriculum will be tied into the use of the movies in order to give teachers a better understanding of what purpose the film will fulfill.   

  • Englund, Ida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Gabela, Mediha
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    ”Det krävs ju nästan att man har ett bra samarbete för att det ska funka”: En kvalitativ studie om samarbetet i den dagliga kontakten mellan förskola och hem, ur ett förskollärarperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att bidra med förståelse om samarbetet mellan förskollärare och vårdnadshavare i den dagliga kontakten ur ett förskollärarperspektiv. För att uppnå syftet har forskningsfrågorna "Vad uttrycker förskollärare om samarbetet mellan förskolan och vårdnadshavare i den dagliga kontakten?” och “Hur kan det förskollärarna uttrycker förstås ur ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv?” besvarats. Empirin har samlats in genom två fokusgruppssamtal med förskollärare som deltagare. Deltagarna har valts ut genom bekvämlighets- samt kriteriebaserat urval. Den insamlade empirin har analyserats tematiskt utifrån verksamhetsteorin med utgångspunkt i Yrjö Engeströms (1987) modell för verksamhetssystem. Ur den tematiska analysen framkom två huvudteman samt sex delteman. Det första huvudtemat är verksamhetssystem som samarbetar med delteman förtroende, förståelse och vårdnadshavarnas delaktighet. Det andra huvudtemat är verksamhetssystem som kolliderar med delteman tidsutrymme för samtal, skilda uppfattningar om samtalens innehåll och samarbete för barnens bästa. I resultatet framkommer det som är betydelsefullt för ett förtroendefullt samarbetet mellan förskola och hem i den dagliga kontakten, vilket är att skapa ett förtroende och förståelse för varandras perspektiv samt delaktighet genom förskolan projekt. I resultatet lyfts även kollisioner som kan uppstå, vilket innefattar tidsutrymmet för samtal som i vissa fall kan upplevas begränsad, olika syn på vad samtalen i den dagliga kontakten ska innehålla samt synen på barns bästa.

  • Al Doory, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Freytag, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Developing waste-to-energi in Brazil: A pre-feasbility study for a waste-to-energi plant in Santa Catarina, Brazil2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Radon, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Johansson, Pia
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Behre, Martin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Göbel, Hannes
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hernandez, Niina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hjelm-Lidholm, Sara
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Löfström, Tuwe
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Wallström, Stavroula
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    What happens when retail meets research?: Special session2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    special session Information

    We are witnessing the beginning of a seismic shift in retail due to digitalization. However, what is meant by digitalization is less clear. Sometimes it is understood as means for automatization and sometimes it is regarded as equal to e-commerce. Sometimes digitalization is considered being both automatization and e-commerce trough new technology. In recent years there has been an increase in Internet and mobile devise usage within the retail sector and e-commerce is growing, encompassing both large and small retailers. Digital tools such as, new applications are developing rapidly in order to search for information about products based on price, health, environmental and ethical considerations, and also to facilitate payments. Also the fixed store settings are changing due to digitalization and at an overall level; digitalization will lead to existing business models being reviewed, challenged and ultimately changed. More specifically, digitalization has consequences for all parts of the physical stores including customer interface, knowledge creation, sustainability performance and logistics. As with all major shifts, digitalization comprises both opportunities and challenges for retail firms and employees, and these needs to be empirically studied and systematically analysed. The Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing at University of Borås is a research centre with the aim of identifying and analysing emerging trends that digitalization brings for the retail industry.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Locally Induced Predictive Models2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most predictive modeling techniques utilize all available data to build global models. This is despite the wellknown fact that for many problems, the targeted relationship varies greatly over the input space, thus suggesting that localized models may improve predictive performance. In this paper, we suggest and evaluate a technique inducing one predictive model for each test instance, using only neighboring instances. In the experimentation, several different variations of the suggested algorithm producing localized decision trees and neural network models are evaluated on 30 UCI data sets. The main result is that the suggested approach generally yields better predictive performance than global models built using all available training data. As a matter of fact, all techniques producing J48 trees obtained significantly higher accuracy and AUC, compared to the global J48 model. For RBF network models, with their inherent ability to use localized information, the suggested approach was only successful with regard to accuracy, while global RBF models had a better ranking ability, as seen by their generally higher AUCs.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    One Tree to Explain Them All2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Random forest is an often used ensemble technique, renowned for its high predictive performance. Random forests models are, however, due to their sheer complexity inherently opaque, making human interpretation and analysis impossible. This paper presents a method of approximating the random forest with just one decision tree. The approach uses oracle coaching, a recently suggested technique where a weaker but transparent model is generated using combinations of regular training data and test data initially labeled by a strong classifier, called the oracle. In this study, the random forest plays the part of the oracle, while the transparent models are decision trees generated by either the standard tree inducer J48, or by evolving genetic programs. Evaluation on 30 data sets from the UCI repository shows that oracle coaching significantly improves both accuracy and area under ROC curve, compared to using training data only. As a matter of fact, resulting single tree models are as accurate as the random forest, on the specific test instances. Most importantly, this is not achieved by inducing or evolving huge trees having perfect fidelity; a large majority of all trees are instead rather compact and clearly comprehensible. The experiments also show that the evolution outperformed J48, with regard to accuracy, but that this came at the expense of slightly larger trees.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Comparing Methods for Generating Diverse Ensembles of Artificial Neural Networks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that ensemble performance relies heavily on sufficient diversity among the base classifiers. With this in mind, the strategy used to balance diversity and base classifier accuracy must be considered a key component of any ensemble algorithm. This study evaluates the predictive performance of neural network ensembles, specifically comparing straightforward techniques to more sophisticated. In particular, the sophisticated methods GASEN and NegBagg are compared to more straightforward methods, where each ensemble member is trained independently of the others. In the experimentation, using 31 publicly available data sets, the straightforward methods clearly outperformed the sophisticated methods, thus questioning the use of the more complex algorithms.

  • König, Rikard
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Improving GP Classification Performance by Injection of Decision Trees2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel hybrid method combining genetic programming and decision tree learning. The method starts by estimating a benchmark level of reasonable accuracy, based on decision tree performance on bootstrap samples of the training set. Next, a normal GP evolution is started with the aim of producing an accurate GP. At even intervals, the best GP in the population is evaluated against the accuracy benchmark. If the GP has higher accuracy than the benchmark, the evolution continues normally until the maximum number of generations is reached. If the accuracy is lower than the benchmark, two things happen. First, the fitness function is modified to allow larger GPs, able to represent more complex models. Secondly, a decision tree with increased size and trained on a bootstrap of the training data is injected into the population. The experiments show that the hybrid solution of injecting decision trees into a GP population gives synergetic effects producing results that are better than using either technique separately. The results, from 18 UCI data sets, show that the proposed method clearly outperforms normal GP, and is significantly better than the standard decision tree algorithm.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Oracle Coached Decision Trees and Lists2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel method for obtaining increased predictive performance from transparent models in situations where production input vectors are available when building the model. First, labeled training data is used to build a powerful opaque model, called an oracle. Second, the oracle is applied to production instances, generating predicted target values, which are used as labels. Finally, these newly labeled instances are utilized, in different combinations with normal training data, when inducing a transparent model. Experimental results, on 26 UCI data sets, show that the use of oracle coaches significantly improves predictive performance, compared to standard model induction. Most importantly, both accuracy and AUC results are robust over all combinations of opaque and transparent models evaluated. This study thus implies that the straightforward procedure of using a coaching oracle, which can be used with arbitrary classifiers, yields significantly better predictive performance at a low computational cost.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Boström, Henrik
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Using Feature Selection with Bagging and Rule Extraction in Drug Discovery2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates different ways of combining feature selection with bagging and rule extraction in predictive modeling. Experiments on a large number of data sets from the medicinal chemistry domain, using standard algorithms implemented in theWeka data mining workbench, show that feature selection can lead to significantly improved predictive performance.When combining feature selection with bagging, employing the feature selection on each bootstrap obtains the best result.When using decision trees for rule extraction, the effect of feature selection can actually be detrimental, unless the transductive approach oracle coaching is also used. However, employing oracle coaching will lead to significantly improved performance, and the best results are obtainedwhen performing feature selection before training the opaque model. The overall conclusion is that it can make a substantial difference for the predictive performance exactly how feature selection is used in conjunction with other techniques.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Using Imaginary Ensembles to Select GP Classifiers2010In: Genetic Programming: 13th European Conference, EuroGP 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, April 7-9, 2010, Proceedings / [ed] A.I. et al. Esparcia-Alcazar, Springer, 2010, p. 278-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When predictive modeling requires comprehensible models, most data miners will use specialized techniques producing rule sets or decision trees. This study, however, shows that genetically evolved decision trees may very well outperform the more specialized techniques. The proposed approach evolves a number of decision trees and then uses one of several suggested selection strategies to pick one specific tree from that pool. The inherent inconsistency of evolution makes it possible to evolve each tree using all data, and still obtain somewhat different models. The main idea is to use these quite accurate and slightly diverse trees to form an imaginary ensemble, which is then used as a guide when selecting one specific tree. Simply put, the tree classifying the largest number of instances identically to the ensemble is chosen. In the experimentation, using 25 UCI data sets, two selection strategies obtained significantly higher accuracy than the standard rule inducer J48.

  • Sönströd, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Evaluating Algorithms for Concept Description2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing concept description, models need to be evaluated both on accuracy and comprehensibility. A comprehensible concept description model should present the most important relationships in the data in an accurate and understandable way. Two natural representations for this are decision trees and decision lists. In this study, the two decision list algorithms RIPPER and Chipper, and the decision tree algorithm C4.5, are evaluated for concept description, using publicly available datasets. The experiments show that C4.5 performs very well regarding accuracy and brevity, i.e. the ability to classify instances with few tests, but also produces large models that are hard to survey and contain many extremely specific rules, thus not being good concept descriptions. The decision list algorithms perform reasonably well on accuracy, and are mostly able to produce small models with relatively good predictive performance. Regarding brevity, Chipper is better than RIPPER, using on average fewer conditions to classify an instance. RIPPER, on the other hand, excels in relevance, i.e. the ability to capture a large number of instances with every rule.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Using Genetic Programming to Obtain Implicit Diversity2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing predictive data mining, the use of ensembles is known to increase prediction accuracy, compared to single models. To obtain this higher accuracy, ensembles should be built from base classifiers that are both accurate and diverse. The question of how to balance these two properties in order to maximize ensemble accuracy is, however, far from solved and many different techniques for obtaining ensemble diversity exist. One such technique is bagging, where implicit diversity is introduced by training base classifiers on different subsets of available data instances, thus resulting in less accurate, but diverse base classifiers. In this paper, genetic programming is used as an alternative method to obtain implicit diversity in ensembles by evolving accurate, but different base classifiers in the form of decision trees, thus exploiting the inherent inconsistency of genetic programming. The experiments show that the GP approach outperforms standard bagging of decision trees, obtaining significantly higher ensemble accuracy over 25 UCI datasets. This superior performance stems from base classifiers having both higher average accuracy and more diversity. Implicitly introducing diversity using GP thus works very well, since evolved base classifiers tend to be highly accurate and diverse.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Using Optimized Optimization Criteria in Ensemble Member Selection2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both theory and a wealth of empirical studies have established that ensembles are more accurate than single predictive models. Unfortunately, the problem of how to maximize ensemble accuracy is, especially for classification, far from solved. This paper presents a novel technique, where genetic algorithms are used for combining several measurements into a complex criterion that is optimized separately for each dataset. The experimental results show that when using the generated combined optimization criteria to rank candidate ensembles, a higher test set accuracy for the top ranked ensemble was achieved compared to using other measures alone, e.g., estimated ensemble accuracy or the diversity measure difficulty.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Chipper: A Novel Algorithm for Concept Description2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, several demands placed on concept description algorithms are identified and discussed. The most important criterion is the ability to produce compact rule sets that, in a natural and accurate way, describe the most important relationships in the underlying domain. An algorithm based on the identified criteria is presented and evaluated. The algorithm, named Chipper, produces decision lists, where each rule covers a maximum number of remaining instances while meeting requested accuracy requirements. In the experiments, Chipper is evaluated on nine UCI data sets. The main result is that Chipper produces compact and understandable rule sets, clearly fulfilling the overall goal of concept description. In the experiments, Chipper's accuracy is similar to standard decision tree and rule induction algorithms, while rule sets have superior comprehensibility.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Increasing Rule Extraction Accuracy by Post-processing GP Trees2008In: Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE, 2008, p. 3010-3015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic programming (GP), is a very general and efficient technique, often capable of outperforming more specialized techniques on a variety of tasks. In this paper, we suggest a straightforward novel algorithm for post-processing of GP classification trees. The algorithm iteratively, one node at a time, searches for possible modifications that would result in higher accuracy. More specifically, the algorithm for each split evaluates every possible constant value and chooses the best. With this design, the post-processing algorithm can only increase training accuracy, never decrease it. In this study, we apply the suggested algorithm to GP trees, extracted from neural network ensembles. Experimentation, using 22 UCI datasets, shows that the post-processing results in higher test set accuracies on a large majority of datasets. As a matter of fact, for two setups of three evaluated, the increase in accuracy is statistically significant.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    The Problem with Ranking Ensembles Based on Training or Validation Performance2008In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to somehow use results on training or validation data to estimate ensemble performance on novel data. With the specific setup evaluated; i.e. using ensembles built from a pool of independently trained neural networks and targeting diversity only implicitly, the answer is a resounding no. Experimentation, using 13 UCI datasets, shows that there is in general nothing to gain in performance on novel data by choosing an ensemble based on any of the training measures evaluated here. This is despite the fact that the measures evaluated include all the most frequently used; i.e. ensemble training and validation accuracy, base classifier training and validation accuracy, ensemble training and validation AUC and two diversity measures. The main reason is that all ensembles tend to have quite similar performance, unless we deliberately lower the accuracy of the base classifiers. The key consequence is, of course, that a data miner can do no better than picking an ensemble at random. In addition, the results indicate that it is futile to look for an algorithm aimed at optimizing ensemble performance by somehow selecting a subset of available base classifiers.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    On the Use of Accuracy and Diversity Measures for Evaluating and Selecting Ensembles of Classifiers2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The test set accuracy for ensembles of classifiers selected based on single measures of accuracy and diversity as well as combinations of such measures is investigated. It is found that by combining measures, a higher test set accuracy may be obtained than by using any single accuracy or diversity measure. It is further investigated whether a multi-criteria search for an ensemble that maximizes both accuracy and diversity leads to more accurate ensembles than by optimizing a single criterion. The results indicate that it might be more beneficial to search for ensembles that are both accurate and diverse. Furthermore, the results show that diversity measures could compete with accuracy measures as selection criterion.

  • Jammula, Chaitanya Krishna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Correlating the microstructure with wear properties of aluminium silicon carbides2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium is one of the metals playing a prominent role in automobile industry after cast iron. Because of its light weight property and good mechanical properties. When aluminium reinforced with silicon carbide showing good tribological properties and improved strength. Aluminium silicon carbide needs some good wear and frictional properties to use it as break disc. Aluminium reinforced with 15% and 20% silicon carbide and casted in two different ways, liquid casting and stir casting. Four different composites are compared in this paper. Hardness test was carried out on the samples. Increase in the Vickers hardness with increase in silicon carbide reinforcement for both the castings is observed. Rockwell C hardness is showing decreasing trend with increase in SiC reinforcement. The scratch resistance of the surface under micro level was analysed with the help of nano scratch test. The SiC particles in the aluminium matrix are resisting the indenter from deep deformation of the surface. Frictional forces are dropped whenever the indenter met the SiC particles. In other cases, SiC particles are deforming the aluminium matrix in the form of broken particles. The plastic deformation of aluminium is observed, and material is piled up on sideways of groove at high load.Sliding wear behaviour of the composites are investigated by means of reciprocating pin on plate wear rig. The test was carried out at load of 20N for five different sliding duration. Aluminium with 20% silicon carbide of liquid casting is used as a base metal. The worn-out surface of the samples is analysed in SEM. The metallography of the worn-out samples is showing some deep grooves and abrasion of the material. Wear debris from both the surfaces are forming into a cluster of layers. These layers are protecting the surface from wear in some areas were observed. Composition of tribo layer formed during the test was investigated with the help of EDS analysis. The tribo layer are rich in aluminium and silicon elements because both the samples are made of aluminium silicon carbide.

  • Chandrashekar, Sharath
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Sawalekar, Vishal
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Forecast and Context Driven Sales & Operations Planning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Svensson, Philip
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Blom, Johannes
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Critical Factors for Production Ramp-up in High Technology Companies: A case study at an aerospace company2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - A research gap was identified in relation to the production related factors during ramp-up. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to “simplify production ramp-up by defining how measures could be prioritised in high technology company.”

    Method – The study used a single-case study method with a qualitative and explorative approach. This method was used to gain in-depth knowledge of the case. The study was conducted at Saab, a high technology company within the aerospace industry.

    Findings – The findings included a list of critical factors for ramp-up control and two additional critical factors that are relevant to high technology companies, along with five additional measures. From the case the main critical factors were related to personnel, education and experience.

    Implications – The study has contributed with a simplified ramp-up control method with implications for high technology industries. The new method will contribute to a more effective time to volume phase relevant for both practitioners and researchers.

    Limitations - As the study uses a new ramp-up control method it has only been applied to one case. The complete data from the case cannot be showcased due to secrecy.

  • Björklund, Gabriella Veronica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Wallier, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Investering i automation: Väsentliga aspekter att ta hänsyn till ur en kontraktstillverkares kontext2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight trade-offs that contract manufacturer's need to make when deciding on investments in automation. To achieve the aim of the study, three research questions have been formulated:

    1. What factors do a contract manufacturer need to take into account when investing in automation?

    2. What are the driving forces for a contract manufacturer to invest in automation?

    3. What can an increased integration prompt for effects on a contract manufacturer’s business?

    Method: In order to understand the study’s problem area in its specific context more generally, a preliminary investigation was conducted on the chosen case company within electronic components manufacturers industry. In order to then be able to answer the formulated questions, a qualitative one-case-study was conducted with an inductive nature. A literature research was conducted to fulfil support and understanding in theories in the main areas of contract manufacturing, relations, investments and automation and was then presented in the theoretical framework. Parallel with the literature process the data collection was performed, which consisted of semi-structured and -standardized interviews, observations and documents studies. The choice of several methods indicates that triangulation could be performed and increase validity accordingly.

    Findings: The study showed that factors that a contract manufacturer needed to take into account when investing in automation in some cases could be offset or completely neutralised by the contract manufacturer’s motivations for why the investment should be implemented from the beginning. Despite contract manufacturers justification on why the investment needed to be implemented, it was seen that the repayment always came to be crucial to whether the investment would take place. Furthermore, the study showed that an increased integration could increase the entire supply chain’s profitability, and an integration with several customers increased the contract manufacturer’s opportunity and willingness to invest in automation.

    Implications: The case study has contributed to the development of previous individual research areas, such as investment, automation and relation, and inserted it into a contract manufacturer’s context. Based on this, a new model has subsequently been developed. Furthermore, the study also generates a sales argument for the case company to make customers understand the importance of how integration can increase profitability.

    Limitations: Since the study is designed as a one-case-study and largely only analysed the final assembly of one customer, the generalizability and result are limited against other contract manufacturers. This is since they do not necessary operate in the same way. The study is also limited in such a way that it does not affect any calculations nor further immersions in personnel resources. The study’s results will not be tested hypothetically test to see whether the results obtained are correct or not.

  • Carrevik, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Gustafsson, Jonatan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Hantering av orderspecifika komponenter: En fallstudie utförd vid ett tillverkande företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose with the study is to with help of value stream mapping identify problem areas and wastes connected to the handling of order specific components. To be able to answer the purpose the following two research questions was formulated.  

    -      Which activities is non-value adding with the internal handling of order specific components? 

    -      Why does the non-value adding activities exist with the handling of order specific components?

    Method– Theories connected to value stream mapping was gathered to answer both of the studies research questions. Theory regarding Lean manufacturing, value stream mapping, customer order driven production, production strategies, information flow and working environment was necessary to build a solid ground for the study’s analysis. The study was designed as a case study where data was gathered from the business case. Data was gathered through interviews, observations and document studies which resulted in the data that the analysis was built from. To answer the research questions booth data and theory was analysed through pattern comparison.

    Findings– The findings of the first research question present different activities connected to the value stream for the order specific components that do not add any value to the customer. The activities could be; various labelling that leading to inappropriate processing, late deliveries resulting in waiting time and correction of existing products demanding rework. In order to make it possible to find out why the non-value adding activities exist the study shows that knowledge about primary causes to waste is required. These primary causes resulting in waste in the value stream could be poor working conditions, communication problems and the lack of sufficient technical knowledge. The principle based on analysing why the non-value adding activities exist by analysing the primary causes connected to it states to be general, but details regarding waste is business case unique.

    Implications– The study theoretically contributes to how a value stream mapping can be performed to be able to map the value flow and deal with the wastes from order specific components. Because the report builds on earlier research it can be seen as a reference at implementation of a value stream mapping at a manufacturing company. Practically the study contributes to map and identify wastes at a manufacturing company that operates through a customer order driven production. Practically knowledge about how the theory can be used to identify why non-value adding activities exist can also be found in the study.

    Limitations– The main purpose of the study aims to identify non-value adding activities, not necessarily coming up with prepositions on how to eliminate them. The delimitations states that the study is limited to investigate the value stream for order specific components which is bought straight from the supplier, not other components at the factory.

  • Prosalenti, Glykeria
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Preschool quality in the Swedish context: Preschool Heads’ Perspectives and Actions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of preschool quality in Sweden is a subject of concern for preschool workers, researchers, parents and other stakeholders internationally. After the revision of the national preschool curriculum in 2010, the examination of the role of heads in outlining and maintaining quality has become a topic of concern, in particular regarding systematic quality work and the responsibilities of the heads in relation to this work. The purpose of this literature review is therefore to examine the extant research on how preschool heads in Sweden understand and work with the issue of quality in Early Childhood Education and Care. The research questions are: What is preschool quality, and how can it be assessed in the eyes of the head preschool teachers in Sweden? And, how do the heads fulfil their responsibilities inrelation to quality work in preschool? Four studies were reviewed and analyzed based on three criteria of measuring quality: structural,result,and processual. The results showed that the preschool heads had broad areas of measuring quality work, covering all three areas of quality. However, their practical quality work only covered some of these areas. Collaboration with staff, parents and other preschools wasmost commonly mentioned by the heads, as they are also problematised on their daily tasks in practice. Generally, there was an emphasis on structural quality more than processual and result quality matters. The findings and implications are discussed also in terms of the three areas of measuring quality: structural,result,and processual. Overall, heads might need more support and guidance from experts in order to achieve quality work in relation to processual areas of quality matters in preschool. Future research ought to examine quality of care in preschool (rather than quality of education) from the perspective of preschool heads. 

  • Waloszczyk, Dorota
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF).
    Reconsidering documentation systems: Examining Polish preschool educators’ reflections upon Polish preschool documentation system, preschool democracy and Reggio Emilia-inspired pedagogical documentation from Sweden.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Poland see preschool documentation as a very important practice in Early Childhood Education and Care. Each country, however, conceives of this documentation differently. Reggio Emilia-inspired pedagogical documentation is one of the documentation practices used in Swedish preschools. There is very little research on the approach of Polish educators to this form of pedagogical documentation. Furthermore, the Swedish preschool curriculum is based on Social Pedagogy in contrast to the Polish preschool curriculum, which is based on Readiness for School. These curricular perspectives are underpinned by different views on children’s abilities and on the goal of preschool as an institution. This, in turn, reflects the relative differences in how democracy is viewed, and documentation maintained in these two countries. In this study, semi-structured interviews with four Polish preschool educators were conducted in order to document their understandings of the mentioned terms, as well as their perspectives on the forms and practices of documentation that they use. The participants were also asked about the possibility of adapting pedagogical documentation, as seen in Sweden, to the Polish preschool model. The findings showed, that the participants did not recognize Polish preschool system as democratic. What is more, the interviewees are not satisfied with the form of their preschool documentation. However, the interviews showed, that even though the teachers see value in pedagogical documentation, they do not see this approach as the appropriate one to adapt to Poland, due to the system malfunctions and reluctant co-workers. Lastly, the study shows that more research is needed to examine the relationship between documentation practices and the promotion and maintenance of democratic practices in preschool internationally, as well as suggests some changes in order to improve Polish documentation practices.

  • Thulin, Felix
    Augmented Reality i utomhusmiljöer: En jämförelse mellan ARKit och ARCore2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis is to understand how the two frameworks: ARKit and ARCore works in the outside environment, in terms of possibilities and constrictions. This thesis intends to answer the following research questions:

    -        Which possibilities and restrictions does ARKit and ARCore have for usage in the outside environment?

    -        Which is the lowest illuminance needed for ARKit to work?

    Method – The study uses a literature study to answer the first research question. For the second research question a combination of literature study and experimental study is used, in which a hypothesis and prediction is formulated.

    Results – The results of the study show that there’s more restrictions than possibilities for using ARKit and ARCore in the outside environment. There are a lot of factors that can affect the frameworks ability to read the surroundings and place virtual objects. Dynamic elements, such as weather and illumination, is something that needs to be kept in mind. The experimental study showed that the minimal illumination needed for an ARKit based application to be able to place an object in an environment was 10.275 lx. In comparison; this is when the sun is positioned at a -5O under the horizon or higher. For example, this means that 1st of January only has 7h and 30min of the day where there is enough daylight for ARKit to read the surrounding. This does not account for other factors that can be troublesome, such as during the wintertime there is likely snow covering the ground.

    Implications – The study contributes to the exploration of an area which is relatively unknown since these frameworks have barely been out for a year. The results in the study can give an insight for developers and companies that have visions to use AR technology in the outside environment. The study covers the main areas AR, ARKit and ARCore.

    Limitations – The experimental study was only performed using ARKit, the reason being that the only testing device available was iOS

    Keywords – Augmented Reality, AR, Apple, Google, ARKit, ARCore, Lux, Experiment, Literature study.

  • Bergelin, John
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ericsson, Felix
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Dataöverföring med Bluetooth 5: En jämförelse mellan Classic och Low Energy2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study between the techniques Bluetooth Low Energy and Bluetooth Classic has been performed in cooperation with Saab AB with the purpose to determine which technique is best suited for transmission of data between an Android unit and an embedded system. The parameters that has been analyzed are throughput, energy efficiency and susceptibility. The study has been performed in accordance with the method Design Science Research and has therefore produced an artefact in the form of a system that has been evaluated in an experiment where performance parameters have been measured and analyzed.

    The results show that BLE is more robust in environments with a high level of noise and can handle lower SNR levels than BR/EDR; 3 dB vs 7,5 dB. If enough transfer speed is reached, BLE would also give the best energy efficiency and if the specified maximum throughput is reached, BLE would, according to this study, have more than double the energy efficiency as BR/EDR. BLE is, according to most measures, preferable from Bluetooth version 5 and is future-proof but BR/EDR still provides the highest throughput.

  • Forsberg, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Johansson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Produktionsplanering i massproducerande MTO-företag: Med fokus på leveranssäkerhet och kostandseffektivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose with the study is to identify improvements within production plans to ensure that they contribute to delivery dependability and cost efficiency in manufacturing companies. To be able to answer the purpose three research questions have been formulated.

    1. What factors are critical within production planning? 2. How to ensure that production plans contribute to delivery dependability respective cost efficiency? 3. How can delivery dependability and cost efficiency be balanced?

    Method – A pilot study was conducted in order to define the problem area and formulate a purpose for the study. Then a case study and a literature review were performed to provide empirical and theoretical data. The case study was conducted at a manufacturing company with a mass production and a MTO strategy. The data was collected through interviews and document studies. The literature study created a theoretical framework regarding production planning, delivery dependability and cost efficiency. Finally, the empirical and theoretical data were analysed to generate improvements.

    Findings – In the study critical factors were identified within production planning. The analysis indicated that manufacturing companies with a mass production and a MTO strategy should ensure quality and delivery dependability before flexibility and at last, cost efficiency. To manage these factors improvements were presented that can improve delivery dependability and cost efficiency at a company.

    Implications – The theoretical contribution consists of a support system how to handle critical factors within a manufacturing company with a mass production and a MTO strategy. The study contributes with an insight on how the production planning effects delivery dependability and cost efficiency in a company. The empirical contribution consists of improvements within production planning for manufacturing companies with a mass production and a MTO strategy.

    Limitations – The study is a single case study which delimitate the generalizability. The result of the study can only be generalized to other companies with a mass production and a MTO strategy and partially to companies with a mass production and a MTS strategy. The reliability of the study has been strengthened through several interview respondents together with document studies. 

  • Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Sundén, Olof
    Användandet av Level of Development vid projektering: En kvalitativ studie avseende effektivisering av projekteringsprocessen för konstruktörer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att använda byggnadsinformationsmodeller inom byggbranschen har blivit ett allt större tillvägagångssätt för att effektivt projektera inom bland annat konstruktion, arkitektur och installation. Detta tillvägagångssätt har genererat att aktörer inom samma projekt behöver kommunicera mellan varandra angående innehållet av samtligas egna byggnadsinformationsmodeller. Konstruktörer som arbetar med prefabricerad betong får bland annat underlag levererat från arkitekter, installationskonsulter och andra konstruktörer. Studien avsåg att med hjälp av Level of Development förbättra hur projekteringsunderlagen ser ut som levereras till konstruktörer, som arbetar med prefabricerad betong. Studien framlyfter konsekvenserna av underlag som innehåller för lite information för konstruktörers projektering.

    Metod: Studien är genomförd med kvalitativ data. Genom en litteraturstudie lades grunden till problembeskrivningen och mer ingående hur man kan arbeta med Level of Development. Studien är baserad på sju stycken kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer av personer som har projektering inom konstruktion som yrke. Intervjuerna gjordes i samarbete med Structor Värmland AB, som inriktar sig på prefabricerad betong. Med hjälp av dessa kvalitativa intervjuer kunde erhållen data analyseras från studiens tre frågeställningar.

    Resultat: Resultatet av studien visar att nödvändig information brister när medkonsulter levererar projekteringsunderlag till konstruktörer. Delvis genom att många medkonsulter inte har implementerat BIM och projekterar i 2D samt att underlagen kan innehålla för lite eller för mycket information. Mindre detaljerade underlag tenderar till fler ändringar i konstruktörers projektering, medan överdetaljerade underlag generar onödigt mycket grafik som konstruktörer inte har användning av. Onödig grafik resulterar att modellerna blir långsammare att arbeta i. Utifrån insamlad data återförs rapporten med rekommendationer för att effektivisera konstruktörers projektering. Rekommendationerna innehåller bland annat att konstruktörer bör skaffa sig utbildning inom begreppen BIM och LOD för att kunna ställa krav på hur tillhandahållna underlag från medprojektörer bör se ut.

    Konsekvenser: En standardisering av levererade projekteringsunderlag till konstruktörer bidrar till en mer effektiv projekteringsprocess. Effektiviseringen bidrar till mindre samordning, konflikter i projekteringen samt sparar dyrbar tid. Dock så är Level of Development ett relativt okänt begrepp som har flera olika tolkningar. För att göra projekteringsprocessen mer effektiv behöver konstruktörer ta del av mer information gällande BIM och Level of Development.

    Begränsningar: Rapporten begränsas till projektering med inriktning på prefabricerade betongkonstruktioner. Studien samlar inte in data från medkonsulter, beställare, entreprenörer som arbetar med konstruktörer.

  • Stjärnsand, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Österback, Stella
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Framställning av ett certifieringssystem inom tillgänglighet för nyproducerade flerbostadshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jalal, Buwar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Kourie, Kima
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    En utredning av skyddsombudsroll - Varför är det svårt att rekrytera ett skyddsombud på en byggarbetsplats?2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The construction industry suffers from major problems concerning the recruitment of a safety officers at a construction site. The thesis project investigates why it is difficult to recruit a safety officers at a construction site? The thesis project will also investigate the safety officers ' personal aspect in terms of commitment, behavior, treatment, response, time and security thinking priority. Furthermore, it is analyzed what measures are required for the safety officers position to improve.

    The aim of the thesis project was to investigate why it is difficult to recruit a safety officers on a construction site and be able to clarify the problem. The aim of the goal was also to investigate the difficulties that exist in the role.

                                                                                                                                                   Method: During the work, a structured literature search and interviews are conducted as examination methods. The interviews were designed qualitatively and were semi structured. The interviews were conducted with the main and local safety officers.

    Findings: Some factors that stand out why it is difficult to recruit safety officers at construction sites are that the majority of workers do not have the commitment to the service. It is based on the fact that they do not want more tasks that entail a great responsibility and take time to perform. Future safety officers are afraid that they will not be heard by other workers. Some are confronted with fear of ending up in dialogue where they need to take a discussion and point out unsafe behaviors in the workplace. Safety officers who do not receive the time required to carry out the safety work carry out the safety work in a rapid manner. This can lead to serious accidents.

    Implications: In order for the safety officer’s position to be better at present with regard to the problems that are present, a number of factors should be fulfilled. The safety officers should receive more attention and acceptance from other groups. The subcontractors should be trained more inwardly about the risks that exist on a construction site. The safety officers have the right to take the time required to carry out their assignments and this should the work management clearly clarify. The company should talk positively about the safety role. Safety officers should be connected to an early stage in the project for more participation. Safety officers should be paid for their service.

    Limitations: The thesis delimitation is only to investigate the role of the safety officer at three construction sites. The work was limited to the main safety officer and local safety officers. The degree project was limited and for this reason subcontractors and management are excluded.

  • Anwia Shlimon, Atrn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Al Jazar, Ahmed
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En jämförelsestudie mellan olika ljudisoleringsmaterial i träbjälklag ur ett miljöperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The building industry has a big environmental impact. The timber construction can reduce the impact of the industry because timber is an environmentally friendly material. One of the biggest problems with lightweight construction is sound insulation. The aim of this report is to study two floor construction with different sound insulation materials from an environmental perspective. The materials that will be studied in this report are sand and macadam. The aim of the report is to create a clear comparison between these floor layers and to suggest an improvement proposal.

    Method: The methods that have been used in the report are literature studies, life-cycle assessment, document analysis and interview. The LCA, document analysis and literature studies are the starting point, based on these methods, the first two questions in this paper will be answered. Using the interview was able to conduct information for the last question.

    Findings: This study has shown that sand has a less environmental impact than what macadam has. The improvement proposal that has been suggested in this study is using sawdust with sand as sound insulations layer. Decreasing the amount of sand in floors can have a positive effect on the environment.

    Implications: As a conclusion of this paper, it is proven that sand as a sound insulation material is more favorable for the environment than the macadam. The reason is caused by the process of extracting macadam. The process is more complicated and more energy demanding. Another conclusion is that reducing the amount of sand and replacing the missing amount with sawdust can reduce the environmental impact and increase the sound insulation ability. A recommendation for similar papers more abilities could be included in the analysis to provide a more including and fair result.

    Limitations: This paper is limited to investigate sound insulation materials combined with CLT-slabs exclusively. The methods which have been used provided relevant data to help this paper create conclusions. The goal was to create an all-around answer so that the result could be applicable in other analysis.

    Keywords: LCA, sand, macadam, lightweight construction, impact sound insulation, environment.

  • Lans, Stina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Jakobsson, Albin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    BYGGNADSTEKNISKA LÖSNINGAR VID PÅBYGGNAD AV BOSTÄDER PÅ PARKERINGSHUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In Sweden, there is a shortage of housing and a solution for creating new housing in urban areas is vertical densification. Vertical densification can be done by adding floors of housing on top of existing parking garages. This type of extension sets demands on the existing building. The purpose of this thesis is to serve as a basis for the planning of construction, fire requirements and installations for future similar projects. The goal is furthermore to analyze and compile various building-technical solutions that are used when floors of housing are built on top of existing parking garages. The goal is answered by the following questions:

    1. Which types of construction are used for additional floors of housing on top of parking garages and what requirements does the extension have on the existing building?
    2. What fire requirements are imposed on this type of extension and how are they fulfilled?
    3. How are the additional floors of housing provided with installations?

     

    Method: The report is based on a qualitative case study in which interviews and document analysis formed the basis of empirical data. To confirm the study with theory, a literature study has been conducted.

    Findings: The result shows that a light framework has been used for additional floors of housing, however, the choice of framework material has been different. The capacity of the existing building's foundation has been vital for whether an extension with housing has been possible. Placement of the extension has been due to whether the living space or the number of parking spaces is given as the highest priority. The fire requirements for this type of building can be equated with the requirements imposed on a new building of housing. This has meant that changes to the existing parking garages have been necessary to meet the requirements. New shafts for installations have been placed on both inside and outside of the existing building.

    Implications: The conclusions and recommendations, based on the content of the thesis, consist primarily of the importance of making an accurate inventory. It’s about the existing building's capacity and what possible reinforcement work it requires before an extension with housing.

    Limitations: The study delimits itself from construction engineering calculations and economic calculations. The work has been limited based on a variety of words and timeframe, without these it would be possible to make a more in-depth analysis of the study's reference objects. This would be done through interviewing more actors from additional consulting areas for the selected reference objects.

  • Nyström, Jennifer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Obeido, Anwar
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Nyckelfaktorer för en förbättrad samverkan mellan markavvattningsföretag och kommuner vid stadsutveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Focus on stormwater management is important because water pollution and flood risks are increasingly anticipated effects of climate change and urbanization. In case of urban growth areas, municipalities want to exploit the existing ditches rather than install new pipes. Here cooperation with agricultural drainage organizations may be required. This study contains exposition of key factors to facilitate such cooperation’s to support sustainable urban development. The purpose of this study is to facilitate the cooperation between agricultural drainage organizations and municipalities in order to avoid flooding and pollution which urbanization and climate change can result in. The objective is to identify factors that can help improve cooperation between agricultural drainage organizations and municipalities.

    Method: The study was carried out as a case study of municipal cooperation with agricultural drainage organizations. Data was collected from literature studies and semi-structured interviews with municipalities with previous such experiences; Linköping and Norrköping.

    Findings: The factors that can improve cooperation are foremost communication between both parties in order to find mutual benefits and to keep the registers over agricultural drainage organizations updated. This case study has shown that improvement of collaboration can be achieved through counseling support from a transparent actor. Norrköping Municipality wishes for a simple handbook accessible even to actors with little to no prior knowledge about the process. The case study has also shown that agricultural drainage organizations are stakeholders who have a high interest in influencing projects while also having the power to control the project's time aspect. These are the key stakeholders of the project, who are important players for the project as a whole and who must be prioritized, kept informed and satisfied to facilitate collaboration. To maintain sustainable urban development the risks of flooding and water pollution need to be minimized to protect biodiversity. Open ditches mitigate the load on drainage systems which reduces the risk of flooding and support biodiversity.

    Implications: Knowledge of the importance in using open ditches is necessary to maintain sustainable urban development. There is data missing in the registers over agricultural drainage organizations since they are not updated. This results in difficulties for municipalities when trying to reach the correct person. This problem also results in some agricultural drainage organizations missing knowledge of their part in projects. There is also no authority to consult in these cooperative projects.

    Limitations: The study does not consider other aspects beside the cooperation between municipalities and agricultural drainage organizations. Only municipalities with prior experience of working with agricultural drainage organizations were questioned as the questions required certain knowledge about these processes. It was also appropriate to only consider factors that affect the cooperative process without studying other affecting aspects like the permeability or water uptake of plants since this does not affect the results of the study.

  • Palm, Anton
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bengtsson, Jonathan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    FÖRSLAG TILL MINSKNING AV OLYCKOR FÖR SNICKARE I PRODUKTIONSSTADIET2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The construction industry is the industry with the largest amount of accidentseach year. The industry accounts for 20-40 percent of all fatal work accidents. Thereare several reasons why a lot of accidents occur in the industry but most of the accidentsis due to unsafe acts. The aim of the study is to investigate how the situation appearstoday and to present a suggestion to reduce the amount of accident for carpenters in theproduction. This has been done by answering the following questions: Why does accidents happen to carpenters in the production? In which operation, in the production, does most of the accidents occur? What can be given as a proposal to reduce the number of accidents for carpentersin the production stage?Method: Collection of data is mainly relied on interviews of carpenters, supervisorsand site managers. The method that is used is semi-structured interviews, documentanalysis and literature study. The interviews have been done with employees from threedifferent companies.Findings: The study has concluded that most accidents happens on heights and thatthey mostly happens of unsafe acts and that risk perception is not enough.By involving carpenters in the planning state can risks be detected and handled in anearly state. An improved communication between carpenters and the managementresult in discussion about risks and safety improves. The results of this is a saferenvironment and a decrease in work accidents.Implications: Work accidents can decrease through planning where carpenters areincluded in an early state. There should also be an open communication between thecarpenters and the management where safety will be discussed.Limitations: This study is limited to carpenters in the production because a study thatexamines all disciplines are too extensive for 15 HP. The interviews are limited to fivecarpenters, one foreman and two site managers. Because of this the study can´t bequalified to be generalizable though the study is considered transmittable to most of theconstruction companies.

  • Halilic, Jasmin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Magnusson, Elin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    INFLYTANDET AV CERTIFIERINGEN MILJÖBBYGGNAD INOM ENERGI FÖR NYBYGGNATIONER2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Global greenhouse emissions are a major issue for both the country and the world. Therefore, one has to find alternatives and solutions to produce renewable energy. A vision for renewable energy is to produce property-related renewable energy. The aim of the study was to investigate renewable energy for self-production in new construction, taking into account the certification for Miljöbyggnad to contribute to a more positive development in environmental work.

    Method: The study is a qualitatively oriented research. To succeed in answering questions and attaining the objective of the study, data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The selection of respondents was based on the professional role of the chosen company. The documents that were analyzed were a checklist and an internal manual available in the cooperating company as well as documents from the Sweden Green Building Council that deals with Miljöbyggnad.

    Findings: The work on renewable energy is something that is prioritized despite the high one-time cost, as there is long-term profitability. Communication is therefore important during the design process, but there is a lack of factors in the finishing work. You do not necessarily need to install electricity production facilities in Miljöbyggnad as it is only part of the requirement for the Gold level. From a sustainability perspective, one should nevertheless install it in new production and supplement it with measuring instruments for the plants in order to follow up the result.

    Implications: The economic aspect has a major role in the design as it can prevent sustainability solutions. Therefore, financial support in energy issues is a good incentive for companies. Miljöbyggnad is then a good support in project planning for new production since a certification process is not always necessary. To develop the employee work structure, knowledge transfer should be given more priority.

    Limitations: The study is limited to Miljöbyggnad where only energy indicators have been studied. The case study is limited to apartment buildings to reduce the scope of the study. The results and recommendations presented are generally valid for those companies that have similar working methods and routines.

  • Lindqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Wolf, Michaela
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hur stort får vi bo?: Klimatpåverkan per person i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The world is supposed to aim for a maximal global warming of 1,5 degrees Celsius which means an ecological footprint of 1,3-ton CO2e/person, year. How much does a sustainable living situation affect the living area per person? With the help of a typical Swedish house and a lifecycle analysis the living area is put in relation to the 1,5-degree aim. The purpose of this report is to investigate how the fulfilling of the 1,5-degree aim will affect the living area per person.   

    Method: The research approach in the report is quantitative were a meta study and a case study compose the research strategy. The data collecting methods are a literature study and a document analysis. Lastly the report uses calculations and lifecycle analysis for analyzing and compiling the results. 

    Findings: The goal value for the facility sector should come down to 0.3217ton CO2e/person, year. The typical-house uses 0,6637 ton CO2e/person, year. The results show an unsustainable situation from today’s living situation. It would take between eight to twelve people in the typical house to reach the goal value for the facility sector.  

    Conclusion and recommendations:  

    • Individuals cannot understand their own effect of their living situation when it is measured in CO2e/square meter. Lifecycle analysis, energy-declarations and other things relevant for the living situation should be measured per person who uses the space to give perspective on the climate impact.  

    • A tangible goal value for a sector is extremely hard to define and mostly up to the contemplators’ value and logic. The breakdown of the sectors needs to become clearer and more consequent for a better possibility to compare. 

    • We got knowledge from Birkved, Brejnrod, Kalbar och Petersens (2017) report of how both the construction and consumption stages needs to change and how that isn’t nearly enough. Clearer instruments towards electricity from solar-, wind- and hydro power for real estate owners in all sizes is a recommendation.  

    • It is clear how both individuals and companies need to open their eyes for what it is going to take and how far it is to reach a sustainable situation. Which means that politics need to take a much harder grip on the situation. Such as the demand on the environment declaration should have a maximum value.  

    Limitations: The lifecycle analysis has missing parts of the transport stage and the entire production stage.  

    PRINCE’s version of how to divide the sectors is from 2014 but uses numbers from 2016 over Sweden’s total CO2e emissions.  

    The facility sector contains more categories than what is taken into account in the lifecycle analysis 

  • Törnvall, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Stendlert, Ellinor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    ABW-KONTOR: FÖRSLAG TILL ETT KOMMUNIKATIONSVERKTYG FÖR ATT EFFEKTIVISERA UTFORMNINGSPROCESSEN2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Nowadays it is more common to use activity based work offices, known as ABW-offices. One of the reasons why it is getting more popular is because of the space efficiency. ABW-offices are often designed for less people than number of employees. The problem with many of today’s activity based work offices is that it is not suitable for every type of work environment and its needs. The reason is lack of communication during the design process. That can lead into less information about the working environment for the architect. The goal with the case study has been to produce a userfriendly communication tool so the architect has a better base to start the design process. Method: The study is a qualitative survey with case studies, interviews and document analysis. The largest data collection has been semi structured interviews with architect and employees. The document analysis is based on the layouts of the different work offices. These data collection methods could thereafter be analyzed and generate answers to the questions of the case study. Findings: The study showed that there has been a lack of communication during the design process in every ABW-office. One of the three offices involved the employees during the design process, and the employees seemed to be happy with how the office turned out. The interviews gave information about what factors that can be most important to make the ABW-office as suitable as possible for the work office. After analyzing the empiricism a checklist was created for architect, client and employees. The checklist can be used during the design process to fill the client and the employees need to make a suitable working environment. Implications: A conclusion of this study is that all ABW-offices are not suitable enough for the work office. All the employees did not get fully involved during the design process which, after research, are the best way to get the ultimate result. Therefore, the architect needs to get as much information as possible from the employees to make a good and suitable layout for plan views. A recommendation is to improve the checklist and make it digitized so bigger companies can use the checklist too. Limitations: The study has been delimited to make a research about three different companies with different types of organizations, economy, IT and marketing. People that has been interviewed have all been a part of the exchange to an ABW-office. The checklist is mostly suitable for smaller companies to use since the checklist is in shape of paper. Too many checklist can lead to a less effective designprocess. The methods are chosen in consideration to time and extent of the study. The study would have strengthen if more interviews with for instance the responsible architects of the chosen ABW-offices were made. Keywords: ABW, Activity based work office, Communication tool, Design process.

  • Chamoun, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Pour Mehran, Reihane
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck: En litteraturstudie om insatser, svårigheter och brister i arbetet mot hederskulturen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify interventions, difficulties and shortcomings in the work against honor related violence and oppression. A literature review has been conducted to answer the questions for the purpose of the study. The studies that were used have consisted, among other things, of reports and scientific articles. Honor related violence and oppression is a comprehensive concept that is difficult to define, partly because it can be seen from different perspectives and because it is expressed in many different forms such as control, intimidation, violence and in the most extreme cases, murder. Honor related violence and oppression has received a lot of attention since the assassination of Fadime took place in 2002. As a result, the Government introduced major efforts to combat honor violence and oppression. 

    The analysis showed that social services and some other actors involved in the work against honor related violence and oppression show an uncertainty in dealing with honor cases where there is a lack of knowledge in the field. This, in turn, is proving to affect cooperation in the work regarding honor matters between the actors. If a common approach to honor related violence had improved the cooperation between the actors and helped capture the victims more easily was discussed in this study. However, it is a difficult question to answer since it has its advantages and disadvantages. But a common consensus would have a lot of benefits in the work as it could reduce the uncertainty in relation to the phenomenon. However, this can be difficult to achieve when some explanations and approaches to honor related violence have interpretation precedence, while others have fallen into the shadows. Despite major efforts, there is scant research and a lack of scientific research in the field.

  • Herbertsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Oscar
    DIMENSIONERING AV FLERBOSTADSHUS I TRÄ MED FÖRBEREDELSE FÖR FRAMTIDA PÅBYGGNAD2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rindberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Zohoorian Izadpanah, Soroush
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En jämförelse mellan användning av prefabricerat element för tilläggsisolering eller ombyggnation av ytterväggar ur ett miljö- och ekonomiskt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to conduct an LCA and LCC analysis of an additional insulation panel and a sandwich panel, to see which panel has the most benefits regrading environmental effects and economical effects. The purpose of this study is to conduct a research regarding the economical and environmental effect a refurbishment on the exterior walls of an industrial building, is it more beneficial to add insulation to the existing walls or remodel the exterior walls. The European Union has sat a target to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gases within all sectors including the construction sector. The goal is to reduce the emissions by 80-95 % by the year 2050, calculated by the emission rate from the year 1990. Approximately 20 % of the heating produced within in a building seeps out from the exterior walls, this adds to the importance of optimizing a buildings insulating capabilities. The study can be broken down in to three subcategories. (1) How do you add insulation the exterior walls of an industrial building? (2) Which is more economically benefitable, the reconstruction of existing walls or using prefabricated panels with common goal of adding insulting to an existing industrial building. (3) Which alterative has more impact on the environment, using prefabricate panels or reconstruct the existing walls of a building.

    Method: Methods used to answer the question above include a literature analysis, a document analysis and a case study with the purposes of conducting a life cycle analysis and life cycle cost analysis.    

    Findings: The results of the study points towards that insulating on externally was a much better option in our case study, it reduced the chances of having to deal with both thermal bridges and damages caused by structural dampness in the walls. The results from the LCA an LCC analysis showed that the additional insulation panels had a significant advantage. When using the additional insulation panels the overall cost of the project was reduced by 30,3% and Carbon dioxide emissions where deducted by 50,8% in comparison with the sandwich panels, when both alternatives had a combined u-value of 0,16 W/m2K.

    Implications: The study shows the importance of conducting an LCA and LCC analysis in the start-up process of project, to determine which alternative are more beneficial for the project and the environment. The study also shows that with a relative low investment and environmental impact you can improve the U-value of a building

    Limitations: The study was focused solely around industrial buildings and the study is limited to the exterior walls. No other building components where taken in consideration.

    Keywords: Insulation, LCA, LCC, Exterior walls, additional insulation, industrial buildings

  • Nurro, Matti
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Jönsson, Emanuel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Minimiarmering i grundplattor: En studie om hur konstruktörsföretag väljer armering och hur valet påverkar den färdiga konstruktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Concrete is a widely used construction material for mainly buildingfoundations. In Sweden Eurocode is used to dimension the minimum reinforcement that is supposed to limit the cracking of the concrete after casting, but cracking is nevertheless a common problem. The aim of this paper is to investigate how structural engineers choose the reinforcement in slabs on ground and how the construction is affected by the choice of reinforcement.

    Method: In the study, a literature study is made with articles within minimum reinforcement and cracking problems. A document analysis is made of how the Eurocode should be interpreted and used to calculate the minimum reinforcement amounts and crack widths. There are structured interviews with five design companies to investigate how minimum reinforcement is chosen for three different types of slabon ground.

    Findings: The results of the study show that the final construction might be both physically and economically affected in a negative way due to the fact that the wanted minimum reinforcement levels and crack widths are not always reached.

    Implications: The findings implicate that the choice of minimum reinforcement is done in different ways among engineers, and a significant difference in the levels could be seen. The recommendations are that the formula for crack width limitation should be used first, lower rebar dimensions should be used and that the communication between building construction engineer and builder should beimproved.

    Limitations: The study was limited to five interviews with building construction engineers, only three different slab examples were given to the interviewees for calculation of crack limitation reinforcement. Hence the results are not generally useful for all types of slab on ground.

    Keywords: Crack width, eurocode, eurokod, minimum reinforcement, slab on ground

  • Lundmark, Micaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Eriksson, Madelene
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Övergång till en projektbaserad organisation: En förändringsresa hos IT-företaget Qsys Sverige AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte–Studien ämnar undersöka hur arbete i projektform kan implementeras i en mindre organisation inom IT- och mjukvarubranschen. För att besvara studiens syfte utformades två frågeställningar:

    • Hur kan en organisation effektiviseras genom arbete i projekt?
    • Vilka metoder finns det för att effektivisera projektarbete i en organisation? 

    Metod–En förstudie genomfördes för att ge författarna en bild av studiens problemområde, samt för att forma studiens syfte och frågeställningar. För att besvara frågeställningarna och därmed uppfylla studiens syfte utfördes en fallstudie på en mindre organisation inom IT-branschen, Qsys Sverige AB. Qsys har påbörjat en organisatorisk förändring för att klara av omvärldens ökade krav. Det här medför en mer omfattande projekthantering, som leder till behovet av en tydlig struktur inom projekten. Vidare genomfördes en litteraturstudie för att forma det teoretiska ramverket som behandlar områden som organisationsteori, projekt och förändringsledning. Därefter genomfördes en insamling av empirisk data genom intervjuer och dokumentstudier. En sammankoppling av studiens teoretiska ramverk och empiri genererade studiens analys som slutligen genererade ett resultat. 

    Resultat–I studien har ett antal brister i Qsys Sverige AB:s hantering av projekt belysts. Bristerna leder till ineffektivitet i organisationen som kan leda till exempelvis högre kostnader och mindre produktivitet. För att förbättra bristerna bör organisationen införa en projektmodell anpassad efter dess krav och behov. Då de är en IT-organisation bör de arbeta agilt för att kunna hantera de ofta komplexa uppgifterna. De bör även definiera tydliga roller för att undvika förvirring angående vem som gör vad. Vidare är det vid en organisatorisk förändring viktigt att beakta förändringens utfall i ett tidigt skede, för att undvika att problem uppdagas när förändringen redan har implementerats.

    Implikationer– Studien bidrar till ny teori genom att lyfta en organisatorisk förändringslednings påverkan på arbete i projekt, som anses vara ett outforskat område. Studien lyfter även aspekter som organisationer inom IT-branschen bör beakta vid implementering av primärt arbete i projektform. 

    Det empiriska bidraget studien medför är information och kunskap kring hur en projektbaserad organisation bör implementeras. Ännu ett empiriskt bidrag, till mindre organisationer inom IT-branschen där arbete i projektform är dominant, är vikten av struktur, standardiserade dokument samt definierade roller i projekten för att arbeta så effektivt som möjligt. 

    Begränsningar–Studien ämnar undersöka hur arbete i projektform kan implementeras. Studien kommer enbart att fokusera på mindre organisationer inom IT-branschen och dess projektavdelning.

  • Sundell, Nina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Ann-Sophie, Dahlgren
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Activity limitations and participation in activities among children with disabilities in western Uganda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis