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  • Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Thuswaldner, Michael
    RUAG Space AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry2014In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

  • Olsen, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Assembly cell concept for human and robot in cooperation2013In: 22nd International Conference on Production Research: Challenges for sustainable operations, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s aerospace assembly is a huge manual task according to strictly controlled instructions, where differentoperators are responsible for different areas. This harmonizes with the overall lean approach, but the assemblyis very time-consuming and some tasks are not ergonomically friendly, such as assembly tasks inside a wingbox. Here, it could be possible to increase automation with the aim to facilitate a shorter assembly time andergonomically improved workplace. This paper will present different assembly cell concepts utilizing differentsafety strategies to achieve human-robot cooperation in an aerospace industry assembly line. These conceptswill be discussed in relation to a case in the aerospace industry. The paper concludes with suggestions forthree conceptual human-robot cooperation layouts. These are based on previous research in the areas ofsafety and human-robot cooperation, in combination with observations from an aerospace assembly line.

  • Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Towards Applying The Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight Methodology for Cost Estimation on Fibre Composite Manufacturing - A Theoretical Approach2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Johan Stahre, Björn Johansson, Mats Björkman, Gothenburg, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased usage of carbon fibre composite poses challenges for the automotive industry; one is to manage carbon fibre composites within the product development process. This paper combines knowledge in design engineering, material science and production technology, aiming to bridge these domains. The study indicates that mass production methods suitable for carbon fibre have several factors in common with traditional polymer production methods. Thus, it is possible that DfMA methods for traditional polymer production can be adjusted for carbon fibre composite production. The result is summarised in a table aiming to facilitate engineering decisions related to cost estimations for composite moulding.

  • Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

  • Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Alexandersson, Dan
    GKN Aerospace Applied Composites AB.
    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System2013In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, p. 8960-8969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

  • Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 505-513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

  • Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    New Automated Composite Manufacturing Process:: Is it possible to find a cost effective manufacturing method with the use of robotic equipment?2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 523-531Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of carbon composites has continuously increased in the commercial aircraft industry due to more challenging weight targets which is one way to handle the environmental requirements to lower the CO2 emissions. One aircraft structure component made at Saab Aerostructures is long and slender U-sections manufactured in carbon composites. The manufacturing is performed by manual layup of composite material. These U-sections are selected as an illustrative case in order to discuss possibilities for an automated manufacturing process with the aim to reduce cost. A literature review of different existing technologies have been performed and compared with the industrial front at Saab Aerostructures. Automated Tape Laying (ATL) and Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) are the two dominating automation methods, of today, for aircraft prepreg manufacturing. Both methods are heavy investments for small to medium size composite manufacturers. Analysis in the case has shown that the selected component cannot be automated with these two methods due to design constrains. The paper suggests that another automated method with a cutting machine in combination with an industrial robot with a vacuum gripper, is selected for further work. The proposed pick and place process is also assumed to reduce the material waste.

  • Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Karlsson, Stina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Arbetsberedningar i byggproduktion: En utredning av samarbetet och kommunikationen mellan produktionsledning och yrkesarbetare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The complexity of the construction industry and lack of repeated patterns complicates the efficiency of work execution. The working method of the construction site is a significant factor for the low productivity. It has been emerged that the occupational workers only use 40-60% of their full potential and the productivity could increase with 40% by increasing the involvement of them. Work preparation is a planning tool for the future work with aim to ensure a safer and more efficient achievement of the work execution. Inadequate communication, collaboration, planning and prioritization leads to a lack of use of work preparations in the industry.

    The aim of the study is to investigate the collaboration and communication between production management and occupational workers during the execution of work preparations and to present improvement suggestions for the execution of work preparations.

    Method: A qualitative case study on three different building projects has been carried out. The methodology was semi-structured interviews with production management, occupational workers and a person from the organization. A document analyse was performed to study what the organization is assisting with, as well as a literature study to gain knowledge from previous research.

    Findings: The identified deficiency was that work preparations rarely are produced together during meetings. The identified underlaying causes for this, is a lack of knowledge and basis, how written and jointly developed work preparations should be carried out. It is unclear how to implement it and too few tools. Due to the lack of knowledge and lack of time, the time required for a good work preparation is not set aside.

    Implications: A work preparation is a good tool to increase the productivity and safety during the execution of the work. To increase the priority of jointly developed work preparations, the production management and the occupational workers must understand the value of them and take time to sit down together and produce them. The organization needs to assist with an explanatory text document regarding work preparations and give clearer guidelines for how the production management should work with them. This would lead to a reduction of ignorance and uncertainties regarding the execution of work preparations.

    Limitations: The time of the study forms the basis of the limitations. The survey is limited to one company, where interviews have been done at three projects. Despite this limitation, the result is transferable to organizations of similar size with projects of similar scope. The work did not aim to change the purpose of the work preparation. 

  • Svensson, Josefin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Nilsson, Rasmus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En jämförelse mellan prefabricerad och platsgjuten stomme:: Ur ett ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate differences between prefabricated and cast-in-situ structures from an environmental and an economic perspective. This to facilitate for different construction companies to choose a structure solution for future construction projects.

    Method: To achieve the goal and answer the questions that are included in this study, a case study has been conducted consisting of six projects. The methods for collecting the empirical data required to complete the study are literature study, document analysis, calculation and LCA. The calculation and life cycle analyses in the case study are done using the digital tools Bidcon and Anavitor.

    Findings: The study shows that the prefabricated structure costs 57–60,7% SEK / m2 BTA and 40,7 – 44,1% SEK / m3 concrete more than the cast-in-situ structure. The study also shows that the prefabricated structure releases 30-35% CO2e / m2 BTA and 17-22% CO2e / m3 concrete more than cast-in-situ structure.

    Implications: The conclusion in this report is to make it easier to choose the type of structure that is the most economical and has the least impact on the environment. Furthermore, the structures cost and environmental impact can be reduced by choosing a cast-in-situ over a prefabricated structure.

    Limitations: The study is limited to a case study based on six projects where three are prefab and three are cast-in-situ. The stage of the investigation is limited to the manufacturing and production stages. Only the load-bearing concrete structure consisting of walls, beams and pillars is examined. The foundation is overlooked in this study. Rebars and concrete are limited to general qualities and quantities for the different structures.

  • Ahlberg, Oskar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hultgren, Patrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    KL-träbyggnad utan heltäckande väderskydd - Ett mer fuktsäkert förfarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to produce a template for how to design CLT buildings moisture-safer and to make recommendations for a moisture-safe working method. CLT is a new building material where there is a need for standardization to meet the requirements and recommendations that exist. Greater consideration needs to be given to moisture in order for people's hygiene and health not to be affected.

    Method: By collecting data using a case study of a multi-story house in CLT, material handling as well as design of framework and weather protection are shown. Design of framework appears through document analysis of design documents for three CLT house projects. Furthermore, the industry's approach and experience are disclosed through interviews of people with different subject-relevant knowledge.

    Findings: By, in the early design stage, prioritizing moisture safety for both construction- and use stages the risk of moisture-related problems is reduced. Furthermore, it should be continuously and jointly worked with moisture safety between disciplines in the project. Building components to take special account of and measures to do this are presented as well as recommendations for a more moisture-proof working method.

    Implications: The results of the study should be a complement to ByggaF, this is because the result specifically addresses CLT. Through implementation, the hope is that the result will reduce the risk of moisture-related problems in CLT buildings. Furthermore, higher requirements should be set on moisture safety in CLT construction, as the result of the current working method is unknown and the precautionary principle should be applied.

    Limitations: The study's result, in form of the design template that is generated, are mainly applicable to architects and designers as only the framework is investigated. The result is generally applicable for new-construction of multi-story buildings in CLT which are constructed in Sweden. Furthermore, measures to reduce the risk of moisture-related problems are being investigated and does not refer to people's influence by microbial growth.

  • Gustavsson, Victor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Fabian, Hagenius
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En kapacitetsjämförelse mellan stålförstärktaträbalkar, limträ och konstruktionsvirke2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Throughout the years numerous studies have been made that concludes thatcombining steel and wood results in improved strength. Under optimal conditions woodis an effective structural material, as it’s both cheap and durable. Steel on the other handunder right circumstances has considerably higher strength than wood. To combinewood and steel has over the last years gathered more attention. Studies shows thathybrid structures can lead to an economical advantage when building multiple storeybuildings, as it can replace or complete pure steel frames. The purpose of this paper isto increase the knowledge and understanding of how steel and wood cooperate and tofind out the advantages and disadvantages of using a flitched beam, as well as compareit’s strength to structural wood and glulam.Method: The paper comprises a quantitative study with two different kinds of datacollection methods, Literature studies and calculations. The literature study consists ofscientific papers and papers published by known institutions and will help the paperanswer the first issue. The calculations has been made with the help of Tekla Tedds,which follows the Eurocode design principles. Which will help the authors answer bothof the papers issues.Findings: The paper has found that the flitch beam has improved strength overstructural wood and glulam, but a significantly higher price. The flitch beam also has amuch higher self weight than structural wood and glulam. The flitch beam can also spanlonger than structural wood and glulam with the same applied load.Implications: The study have concluded that it’s hard to motivate the usage of flitchedbeams in floor designs as they have such high price. The flitch beam has higher strengththan both structural wood and glulam. Which makes the flitch beam a good option asload bearing beam that requires slim dimensions. The added strength of the flitch beamcan motivate the high price under the right circumstances.Limitations: The paper has limited the calculations to an enclosed environment andwill not take moisture or any other type of exposure in to account, As a dry indoorenvironment is optimal for both steel and wood. The calculations the paper uses arebased on Eurocode and all other forms of dimension principles will not be taken intoaccount.

  • Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Stark, Albin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    BIM360 BUILD SOM VERKTYG I VVS-PRODUKTION2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Digitization of the construction industry has increased successively in recent years as new efficient BIM tools are launched in the market. New technology improves the use of outdated methods and improves quality assurance. BIM as a tool in the production stage is not as pronounced as in the other stages of a construction project. HVAC production, in general, is characterized by outdated methods and a renewal of this stage lies in the time when new efficient tools arrive. BIM360 BUILD is a tool that is designed to make building production more efficient. The aim of the report is to examine the tool BIM360 BUILD and then find out how this tool can increase the quality assurance for HVAC production and to develop implementation strategies.

    Method: The report is a qualitative study based on existing research within the subject. Methods for collected empirical data are semi-structured interviews conducted at Skanska Sweden AB and Assemblin Ventilation AB and a document analysis of BIM360 Build.

    Findings: Interviews at the host company Assemblin Ventilation AB provide a good insight into how a nationally large company in ventilation production works today. Interviews with the building giant Skanska Sweden AB gives an insight into how BIM360 BUILD is used after implementation. With collected empirical data, the issues can be analysed, and the BIM tool can streamline many problem areas in the company's production. For an implementation, clear guidelines and strategies are required from management. Implications: Issues, Checklist, Equipment and Task are functions of BIM360 Build which is an effective tool for increasing the quality assurance in HVAC production. Implementation strategies are required to ensure effective implementation:

    • If digital tools such as BIM360 Build are to be impacted, the proof is required that the software has worked before.

    • Some form of expert/support of the program should be available within the organization to make it easier for the older generation.

    • All staff who will use the BIM360 Build should be trained on the software to avoid a lingering learning and implementation process.

    • A BIM coordinator should be hired to facilitate coordination in their own organization and the coordination between other contractors.

    Limitations: The report is delimited to the four functions Issues, Checklist, Equipment and Task, which handle deviations, self-checks, materials and delegation of work elements in construction production. The report is limited to the ventilation industry, but the authors hope that the result can be generalized to other installation branches.

    Keywords: quality assurance, BIM360 Build, implementation, HVAC production, digitization.

  • Axell, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hellqvist, Gustav
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Införandet av BIM i ett medelstort entreprenadföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Dahir, Ahmed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Collazos, Kenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring: Erfarenheterna som bör återföras till projekteringsskedet av installationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ivansson, Signe
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Starck, Kajsa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Operativa beslut inom byggsektorn med hjälp av LCC-utvärdering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a lack of knowledge of translating environmental cost to a monetary value. Sientcis has during the last decades studied and researched the field and developed several methods and tools within the Life cycle cost (LCC). The researchers are wondering why these are not used in the industry? The goal in this study is to develop a working method on how to build better for the climate using Life cycle assessment (LCA) and LCC.

    Method: The methods used to reach the goal of the study are mail interviews, observations, document analysis and literature review.

    Findings: The result of the study describes that municipal housing companies do not use LCC a lot. A case study is done on two houses in Kv. Vingpennan 2 in Kungsängen, Jönköping. The study presents, based on the case study a method for working with LCC with a environmental cost translated into a monetary value by using LCA.

    Implications: Since municipal housing companies at present do not work with LCC analyses to the extent that would be needed, some kind of demands from the municipality could be relevant. The construction sector is emitting a lot of carbon dioxide that is why some kind of tax should be calculated in the beginning of a new building project. There are many reasons why LCC is not so much in use. The uncertainty factors for estimating a monetary value for the environmental cost within the LCC might be a contributing factor. If the requirements that we propose would be put to the decision makers they would be forced to learn how to and work with LCC. The new ISO standard 14008:2019 could be the beginning of work methods for LCC where the environmental cost could be calculated.

    Limitations: The choice of methods and strategies for this study has been appropriate. The limitation is that the case study has only been studied over a shorter time of the studied projects time and that there is a lot of different programs for making a LCA and the materials in those programs is not always the exact same as in the real project. The uncertainties in an LCC could make the results variate a lot depending on who makes it.

  • Unoson, Lars
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bardh, Jonathan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kommunernas användning av avrinningsområdesperspektivet i dagvattenplanering: En kvalitativ undersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the report is to examine how the municipality's VA- organizationtakesintoaccountandusesthecatchmentarea'sperspectiveatstormwater planning, and to investigate the extent to which the VA-organization has the tools needed to solve the task. The goal is to highlight the challenges that the municipality's VA-organization is experiencing with implementing a watershed-perspective in order to achieve sustainable stormwatermanagement.

     

    Method: The study is conducted as a qualitative case study with abductive approach where the authors move between theory and empiricism. Semistructured qualitative interviewshavebeenconductedwithliteraltranscription,whichtogetherwithliterature studies created coherence and achieve thegoal.

     

    Findings:Theresultsuggeststhatlargermunicipalitiesstudywatershedandimplement stormwater measures in line with the watershed-perspective. Basis such as deluge- mapping or structural-plans are used to locate suitable locations to implement sustainable stormwater measures with maximum benefit for the entire watershed area. Modeling tools facilitate work with sustainable stormwater measures for all municipalities. Sustainable stormwater measures in urban areas is difficult to implement due to lack of space. A challenge that needs to be resolved is the question ofresponsibility,bothintermsofadministrativecooperationinthefieldofstormwater issues, but also cooperation concerning the watershed betweenmunicipalities.

     

    Implications: The results indicate that smaller urban areas are not taken into account inthewholewatershedarea.Thiscanhaveconsequencesdownstreaminthewatershed area. By locating suitable sites and plan for how to implement a stormwater measure, the entire watershed area is favored instead of individual development plan. Issues regarding responsibilities in the watershed area is seen as severe, and there is potential for development in this area. The respondents argue that there is a need for clearer consequencesfornon-compliancewithenvironmentalqualitystandardsforstormwater process.

     

    Limitations:Thestudyislimitedtothreemunicipalities'VA-organizationsinsouthern Sweden.Thisdidnotgivethestudyacomprehensivepictureofthemunicipality'swork withthewatershed-perspective,onlytheVA-organization.Asonlythreemunicipalities were studied, the result cannot be considered generally or valid in other municipalities ' VA-organization. The result did not have any generalconclusions.

     

    Keywords: Stormwater management, sustainable stormwater management, watershed.

  • Da Rocha, Telma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Posiol, Karolina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Towards a competitive advantage: a systematic literature review on reshoring and operations capabilities2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Krantz, Joakim
    Växjö universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik.
    Styrning och mening: - anspråk på professionellt handlande i lärarutbildning och skola2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses how political and professional claims directed at teachers change, and in many ways challenge teachers’ professional autonomy, as well as affect preconditions for meaning-making in pedagogic practices. Focus is placed on political steering and its implications for teacher education and teachers’ work in schools. Professional tensions between claims for system-oriented success de-fined as goal achievement versus a communicative understanding are analysed within a conceptual framework of steering and meaning. Based on official educational policy documents as well as teachers’ development projects the analysis revolves around issues concerning core competencies in teacher education and professionalisation processes. The empirical material comprises the Swedish 2001-teacher education reform and the Swedish National Higher Education Agency’s criticism of that part of teacher education which is obligatory for all teacher students (AUO). Moreover, grounds for educational policy that lead to the introduction of individual development plans (IUP) in school are analysed. Additionally, comments on circulated proposals submitted by universities and teacher organisations in connection with Bologna and the IUP-reforms are subject to analysis. In terms of methodology, the study primarily draws upon theories of communicative action, critical discourse analysis and theories of the professions. The results indicate that emphasis in educational policy is placed on the clarification of goals, progression and assessment practices in schools and teacher edu-cation. Thus teachers and teacher educators need to address functional steering claims which demand commitment and loyalty for political reforms. This entails that teachers’ professional autonomy is restricted. Teachers are encouraged to take difficult decisions and act strategically in order to maximise the pedagogic outcome based on economic and political claims for excellence, collaboration, and a clear-cut steering direction. Professionalism now appears to connote quality control by way of more specified formulations and assessments towards learning outcomes. Political rhetoric stipulates as essential that teachers determine knowledge progression and boundaries between the various exam and knowledge levels. Teachers are also to expound internal documentation in order to fulfil system-related claims. The study illustrates how conditions and preconditions emanate from shared profes-sional considerations, competencies and convictions, and that teachers need to be able to discuss these. However, this is challenged by a continuously increasing management by documents. In light of recentralised steering, claims are directed at teachers who are now to create transparency, quantifiable criteria for assessment and employability. Based on the teachers’ development projects, the results indicate that teachers are critical of how the education system is subjected to increasing pressure due to a stream of reforms and evaluations. Politicisation and economisation of education underscore a need for pragmatic and strategic actions within the profession. In contrast to experiences of political lack of vision, impellent user orientation and marketisation, universities and teachers claim that critical communicative-oriented pedagogy boost professional autonomy. Moreover, the study indicates that teachers’ positions and professional identities vary depending on the perceived validity of the political claims. Claims for objectivity, simplification, clarity and functional criteria for assessment are countered by claims for in-depth meaning-making and consideration of the complexity and knowledge instability that is constitutive of pedagogic practices. Ultimately, this study illustrates a professional shift within the teacher body towards notions of objectivity and individualisation, thereby threatening teachers’ critical discussions of their organisation and work.

  • Krantz, Joakim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Fritzén, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Lärarprofessionens kollektiva självbild: som den framträder i Lärarnas tidning och Pedagogiska magasinet 1990 - 20102013Report (Other academic)
  • Hellström, Eugen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    A lack of flæ:r: A comparative study of English accent stereotypes in fantasy role-playing games2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the use of linguistic stereotypes in two fantasy role-playing games, Witcher 3: The Wild Hunt and Dragon Age: Origins with a focus on phonology. It investigates how accent stereotypes are used and why they are important for characters in video games, for example regarding prestige and attractiveness. It analyzes each character from a character type perspective: hero, villain, comic-relief, mentor and lover. The results show that there are accent stereotypes in fantasy role-playing games and that they are, most likely, deliberately placed as such. It also shows that standard variations of English are mainly used for characters that serves a purpose to the story while non-standard variations are used for characters that serves no purpose to the game other than working as tools to enrich the world with a sense of life.

  • Agevall, Lena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Krantz, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Frihet under ansvar eller ansvar under tillsyn? Om dokumentstyrning av professioner2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De professionellas arbetssätt befinner sig i förändring. Att följa manualer och standarder, att möta en ny typ av redovisningsansvar, extern kvalitetskontroll och krav på dokumentation utmanar på flera sätt den traditionella bilden av professioner. I Frihet under ansvar eller ansvar under tillsyn belyses erfarenheter av dokumentstyrning från tre professioner, revisorer, lärare och socionomer.

    Boken fokuserar vad dokumentstyrningen betyder för professionernas kunskapsbas och normbas samt hur professionernas autonomi förändras när det gäller att bedöma vad som ska göras, vad som är kvalitet i arbetet och när det gäller möjligheten att ta ett professionellt ansvar.

    De professionellas erfarenheter analyseras utifrån en modell – kunskapstriaden – vars aspekter; kännarskap, känslomässigt engagemang och utvärdering av och ansvar för eget arbete tillsammans antas utgöra en motor för utvecklingen, upprätthållandet och vidareutvecklingen av de professionellas kunskaps- och normsystem.

    Boken vänder sig till studerande inom professionsutbildningar företrädesvis på en avancerad nivå och till forskare och andra som har ett övergripande intresse för styrnings- och professionsfrågor. Frihet under ansvar eller ansvar under tillsyn manar också till fortsatt forskning om de professionellas villkor.

  • Madzo, Daniela
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Kristendomens ställning i dagens Sverige: En forskningsöversikt av orsaker till Sveriges sekularisering2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om svenskars relation till kristendomen och vad som har påverkat kristendomens status i Sverige. Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera vad forskningen visar om svenskars förhållande till kristendomen i dagens samhälle och vilka orsaker som lyfts fram gällande Sveriges sekularisering. I denna uppsats kommer en kvalitativ metod att tillämpas eftersom att det är tre utvalda verk som diskuterar sekulariseringstesen som ska analyseras med hjälp av den insamlade informationen. En komparativ metod kommer att utföras i detta arbete för att kartlägga forskningen och diskutera möjliga orsaker till sekulariseringen. På detta vis kommer även forskningen ge svar på möjliga faktorer till kristendomens ställning i Sverige. En av faktorerna som lyfts fram är den relativa frånvaron av medierapportering om religion under 1900-talet eftersom man ansåg att religionen var utdöende. En annan faktor som forskningen lyfter fram är att religionsundervisningen i skolan ändrades till icke-konfessionell under 1970-talet och efter det minskade de kristna ritualerna så som dop, bröllop och konfirmationer. Detta resulterade i brist på kunskap inom kristendomen gällande den yngre befolkningen i jämförelse med kunskap inom kristendomen hos den äldre befolkningen i Sverige. En ytterligare möjlig faktor som lyfts fram i forskningen är att den yngre generationen är mer öppen för övernaturliga fenomen som nödvändigtvis inte behöver ha någon slags koppling till en specifik religion. Majoriteten av den svenska befolkningen kallar sig inte kristna trots att de firar kristna högtider men detta beror på att många i dagens Sverige är mer öppna för spirituella fenomen men väljer att leva efter en kristen kultur. Slutsatsen är att kristendomen ligger enligt den samlade forskningen på ett privat plan i livet hos svenskar och detta betyder inte att moderniteten under sekulariseringen har tryckt bort religionen.

  • Larsson, Jesper
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Spring Element Evaluation Using Finite Element Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Stueckemann, Elena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Examining the Role of Source Credibility in the Vaccination Debate: An Experimental Study of the Influence of Heuristic Cues on Source Credibility Assessments and Attitude Change2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global rise of anti-vaccination movements has led to serious consequences for the public health such as the recent measles outbreak in the United States. The increased promotion of misleading information on vaccinations by social media influencers as well as by media outlets seems to have resulted into a more negative view on vaccinations. The popularity of these social media influencers and the good reputation and authority of the media outlets could have played a substantial role in these developments. The following experimental study will try to explore whether popularity or authority cues can have an impact on the evaluation of the credibility of these two types of sources via an online survey. Furthermore, it aims to examine whether said heuristic cues and resulting conformity effects or the source credibility in general could have an impact on the opinion of recipients on a potential autism-vaccination link.

    Results have shown that especially authority cues seem to have a positive impact on source credibility evaluations. Furthermore, a high general trust in the media positively influences assessments of source credibility of well-established news outlets. Popularity cues as well as authority cues seem to have a positive effect on the recipients´ opinion. However, authority cues and the resulting effects of informational conformity seem to lead to greater attitude changes. Particularly people with a high need for conformity exhibit considerable attitude changes when exposed to the well-established news outlet as a source. Also, a high perceived source credibility is positively correlated with a desired attitude change. Especially the high perceived credibility of the social media influencer resulted in significant attitude changes. The results underline the importance and positive impact that a perceived authority can have on source credibility assessments and on recipients’ opinions. This highlights the great necessity for self-proclaimed experts on social media platforms and particularly for well-established news outlets to increase their effort to thoroughly and accurately research health-related topics.

  • Kassberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Antonsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Skillnaden i det dorsala böjmomentet vid MTP, utan rullsula och med två olika styvheter på rullsulan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rocker soles are used to compensate for joint stiffness, reduce high plantar pressure and reduce the bending of the toe joints. Despite this, few studies have investigated if the rocker shoe really reduce the joint movement at the forefoot. There is also a lack of information regarding the importance of the rocker shoes stiffness for the bending moment of the forefoot, at the third rocker.

     

    Method: Five healthy women (n=5) walked with three different pairs of shoes, two pairs were modified with the same rocker shape with different stiffness and one pair without a rocker. Five repeated measurements for the three different shoes were collected for all the participants. The dorsal bending moment was analyzed with a sensor sole (VebitoSCIENCE) that replaced the shoes insole.

     

    Result: The dorsal bending moment was reduced for all participants with a rocker shoe. Significant reduction of the dorsal bending moment at MTP1, for all participants, when the stiff rocker was compared to the shoe without rocker (94,4 – 20,1 Nmm) and between the stiff and flexible rocker for participants 1,2,4 and 5 (68 -22,2 Nmm).

     

    Conclusion: The dorsal bending moment was significantly reduced for MTP 1 and MTP 5 when a rocker shoe was used by healthy women, the study has also shown that the stiffness has an importance in order to achieve a reduction of the dorsal bending moment at MTP.

  • Suleman Nasir, Illaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Kesici, Ilknur
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Social Sustainability within the Manufacturing Industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Persson, Tony
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö inom Individ- och familjeomsorgen i Jönköpings kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a quantitative secondary analysis of existing data from psycho-social working environment questionnaires for the municipality of Jönköping. The goal of the analysis is to study differences between two parts of the individual- and family care, the public authority part and the outpatient care, as well as differences in sex and age-categories. To accomplish this, the methodology is to analyse the existing data from the 2015 questionnaire on psycho-social work environment that the municipality answered. This questionnaire is called QPS/QPS-Nordic and stands for Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work. Subsequently, significant findings of differences have been studied and discussed. The result of the analysis shows that while there are some differences, there is many similarities between the two groups. The study does not present any specific causes for the existing significant differences but clarifies which areas the differences occur within. Furthermore, the study gives suggestions for further research of how the differences could be clarified, and what the relevance is for future research into the Swedish social services work performance. The purpose is to spread information about Swedish social worker’s working environment and to figure out where there are any differences. Do social workers at public authority mark their working environment different from the outpatient care workers or are their similar in their beliefs.     

  • Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    An Infinite Replicated Softmax Model for Topic Modeling2019In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 16th International Conference, MDAI 2019, Milan, Italy, September 4–6, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Gabriella Pasi, Marco Viviani, Springer, 2019, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the infinite replicated Softmax model (iRSM) as an adaptive topic model, utilizing the combination of the infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (iRBM) and the replicated Softmax model (RSM). In our approach, the iRBM extends the RBM by enabling its hidden layer to adapt to the data at hand, while the RSM allows for modeling low-dimensional latent semantic representation from a corpus. The combination of the two results is a method that is able to self-adapt to the number of topics within the document corpus and hence, renders manual identification of the correct number of topics superfluous. We propose a hybrid training approach to effectively improve the performance of the iRSM. An empirical evaluation is performed on a standard data set and the results are compared to the results of a baseline topic model. The results show that the iRSM adapts its hidden layer size to the data and when trained in the proposed hybrid manner outperforms the base RSM model.

  • Ahmad, Hudallah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ulfvengren, Julia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    LCA-SIMULERING FÖR EN MODULBYGGNAD GENOM FYRA OLIKA LIVSCYKLER2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a severe housing shortage in Sweden, with a deficiency of schools and preschools. At the same time, carbon dioxide emission is measuring higher than ever and the realization of environmental crisis is clear. The building sector is responsible a high percentage of carbon dioxide emissions. Calculation for the climate impact can be implemented through life cycle assessment (LCA), directives are requested on how to build through an LCA perspective. The study investigates modular buildings that constitute an efficient and flexible way of managing the building shortage. The aim of this research was to get answers from an ecologically sustainable perspective to what provides more advantageous to process modules when the time- limited building permit expires and a module is needed somewhere else, with or without extra isolation.

    Method: A quantitative methodology was used to accomplish the aim. The climate impact of four different types of lifecycles simulates by using the software Anavitor. Other methods used for data acquisition was document analysis, calculation of specific energy use and transmission loss.  

    Findings: The results present advantageous choices for stakeholders to pick after the time-limited building permits expire and a new module is demanded at another place. The study shows that less carbon dioxide emission is produced when reusing the module rather than demolish and produce a new module. Energy savings can be made which reduces the total climate impact of the module that are additionally insulated. 

    Implications: The conclusion the group could deduct was that the production and manufacturing stage has a significant impact on the total climate impact that a renovation and non-manufacturing scenario is always more advantageous. By adding additionell isolation savings on total carbon dioxide emission can be made despite increased material use.  

    Limitations: The results are limited to a life cycle assessment based on a module’s envelope as the interior and technical equipment is the same for all scenarios. The study was based on a standard module in which the equipment has no effect on the results. The result was initially specific, but with the help of calculation of the breakpoint for independent transport distances, a general validity could be given. 

  • Eriksson, Gusten
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Persson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, JTH, Produktionsutveckling.
    Organisational ambidexterity in manufacturing SMEs: An empirical study of managers’ and workers’ perceptions of ambidextrous elements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisational ambidexterity is considered a key to company survival and performance. Despite this, organisational ambidexterity is still a poorly understood phenomenon, especially in an SME context. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how the compliance with ambidextrous elements is perceived at different levels in manufacturing SMEs, to increase the understanding of organisational ambidexterity in this context. The empirical data was collected through a combination of questionnaire and interview. The case companies in this report perceive that they comply stronger with contextual elements than with structural elements. The strong compliance with contextual elements is motivated by the lack of hierarchies, flexibility in the company, different management structure and low number of employees. This allows employees to perform the contextual elements such as initiative-taking, cooperating, brokering and multitasking. The structural elements including e.g. vision, values, strategies, senior team responsibility and alignment are perceived differently at different  hierarchal levels, indicating that there are subcultures within the hierarchal levels within a company. The biggest difference can be found between the middle managers and the top managers,. Workers perceive that they are not included in explorationb within the company, and that the exploration occur more sporadically than those for exploitation. The definitions of exploration and exploitation vary between the companies which results in a lack of consensus. This makes it difficult for the companies to perform the changes necessary in order to develop and achieve long-term sustainable growth i.e. economical sustainability. The managerial implication of this report concerns four actions: (1) create a common definition for exploration, (2) develop goals for exploration, (3) communicate for buy-in and (4) involve all employees.

  • Karvik, Linus
    et al.
    Toft Eklund, Lisa
    Upplevd atmosfär av blått respektive rött vertikalljus i en restaurangmiljö jämfört med färgade vertikala ytor.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hultgren, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Etik och moral i film: En studie om filmers relevans i undervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this religious didactic study is to investigate how ethics and moral can be interpreted in three different movies. The purpose behind this study is to get a better understanding of how these movies could be used in the subject religion within the college school system. This study of use a qualitative method analysis when studying the films, where the films are interpreted from three different ethical theories such as Utilitarianism, Virtue ethics and Deontological ethics. The quantitative method focuses on social convention in order to fully understand the bigger picture. The social aspects are relevant since this study will examine to see if the movies are fit to be material in the classroom. In order to make this clear I will tie the movies to the college pass marks for the subject Religion. Due to this, the control documents and the curriculum will be tied into the use of the movies in order to give teachers a better understanding of what purpose the film will fulfill.   

  • Englund, Ida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Gabela, Mediha
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    ”Det krävs ju nästan att man har ett bra samarbete för att det ska funka”: En kvalitativ studie om samarbetet i den dagliga kontakten mellan förskola och hem, ur ett förskollärarperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att bidra med förståelse om samarbetet mellan förskollärare och vårdnadshavare i den dagliga kontakten ur ett förskollärarperspektiv. För att uppnå syftet har forskningsfrågorna "Vad uttrycker förskollärare om samarbetet mellan förskolan och vårdnadshavare i den dagliga kontakten?” och “Hur kan det förskollärarna uttrycker förstås ur ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv?” besvarats. Empirin har samlats in genom två fokusgruppssamtal med förskollärare som deltagare. Deltagarna har valts ut genom bekvämlighets- samt kriteriebaserat urval. Den insamlade empirin har analyserats tematiskt utifrån verksamhetsteorin med utgångspunkt i Yrjö Engeströms (1987) modell för verksamhetssystem. Ur den tematiska analysen framkom två huvudteman samt sex delteman. Det första huvudtemat är verksamhetssystem som samarbetar med delteman förtroende, förståelse och vårdnadshavarnas delaktighet. Det andra huvudtemat är verksamhetssystem som kolliderar med delteman tidsutrymme för samtal, skilda uppfattningar om samtalens innehåll och samarbete för barnens bästa. I resultatet framkommer det som är betydelsefullt för ett förtroendefullt samarbetet mellan förskola och hem i den dagliga kontakten, vilket är att skapa ett förtroende och förståelse för varandras perspektiv samt delaktighet genom förskolan projekt. I resultatet lyfts även kollisioner som kan uppstå, vilket innefattar tidsutrymmet för samtal som i vissa fall kan upplevas begränsad, olika syn på vad samtalen i den dagliga kontakten ska innehålla samt synen på barns bästa.

  • Al Doory, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Freytag, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Developing waste-to-energi in Brazil: A pre-feasbility study for a waste-to-energi plant in Santa Catarina, Brazil2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Radon, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Johansson, Pia
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Behre, Martin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Göbel, Hannes
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hernandez, Niina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hjelm-Lidholm, Sara
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Löfström, Tuwe
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Wallström, Stavroula
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    What happens when retail meets research?: Special session2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    special session Information

    We are witnessing the beginning of a seismic shift in retail due to digitalization. However, what is meant by digitalization is less clear. Sometimes it is understood as means for automatization and sometimes it is regarded as equal to e-commerce. Sometimes digitalization is considered being both automatization and e-commerce trough new technology. In recent years there has been an increase in Internet and mobile devise usage within the retail sector and e-commerce is growing, encompassing both large and small retailers. Digital tools such as, new applications are developing rapidly in order to search for information about products based on price, health, environmental and ethical considerations, and also to facilitate payments. Also the fixed store settings are changing due to digitalization and at an overall level; digitalization will lead to existing business models being reviewed, challenged and ultimately changed. More specifically, digitalization has consequences for all parts of the physical stores including customer interface, knowledge creation, sustainability performance and logistics. As with all major shifts, digitalization comprises both opportunities and challenges for retail firms and employees, and these needs to be empirically studied and systematically analysed. The Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing at University of Borås is a research centre with the aim of identifying and analysing emerging trends that digitalization brings for the retail industry.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Locally Induced Predictive Models2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most predictive modeling techniques utilize all available data to build global models. This is despite the wellknown fact that for many problems, the targeted relationship varies greatly over the input space, thus suggesting that localized models may improve predictive performance. In this paper, we suggest and evaluate a technique inducing one predictive model for each test instance, using only neighboring instances. In the experimentation, several different variations of the suggested algorithm producing localized decision trees and neural network models are evaluated on 30 UCI data sets. The main result is that the suggested approach generally yields better predictive performance than global models built using all available training data. As a matter of fact, all techniques producing J48 trees obtained significantly higher accuracy and AUC, compared to the global J48 model. For RBF network models, with their inherent ability to use localized information, the suggested approach was only successful with regard to accuracy, while global RBF models had a better ranking ability, as seen by their generally higher AUCs.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    One Tree to Explain Them All2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Random forest is an often used ensemble technique, renowned for its high predictive performance. Random forests models are, however, due to their sheer complexity inherently opaque, making human interpretation and analysis impossible. This paper presents a method of approximating the random forest with just one decision tree. The approach uses oracle coaching, a recently suggested technique where a weaker but transparent model is generated using combinations of regular training data and test data initially labeled by a strong classifier, called the oracle. In this study, the random forest plays the part of the oracle, while the transparent models are decision trees generated by either the standard tree inducer J48, or by evolving genetic programs. Evaluation on 30 data sets from the UCI repository shows that oracle coaching significantly improves both accuracy and area under ROC curve, compared to using training data only. As a matter of fact, resulting single tree models are as accurate as the random forest, on the specific test instances. Most importantly, this is not achieved by inducing or evolving huge trees having perfect fidelity; a large majority of all trees are instead rather compact and clearly comprehensible. The experiments also show that the evolution outperformed J48, with regard to accuracy, but that this came at the expense of slightly larger trees.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Comparing Methods for Generating Diverse Ensembles of Artificial Neural Networks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that ensemble performance relies heavily on sufficient diversity among the base classifiers. With this in mind, the strategy used to balance diversity and base classifier accuracy must be considered a key component of any ensemble algorithm. This study evaluates the predictive performance of neural network ensembles, specifically comparing straightforward techniques to more sophisticated. In particular, the sophisticated methods GASEN and NegBagg are compared to more straightforward methods, where each ensemble member is trained independently of the others. In the experimentation, using 31 publicly available data sets, the straightforward methods clearly outperformed the sophisticated methods, thus questioning the use of the more complex algorithms.

  • König, Rikard
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Improving GP Classification Performance by Injection of Decision Trees2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel hybrid method combining genetic programming and decision tree learning. The method starts by estimating a benchmark level of reasonable accuracy, based on decision tree performance on bootstrap samples of the training set. Next, a normal GP evolution is started with the aim of producing an accurate GP. At even intervals, the best GP in the population is evaluated against the accuracy benchmark. If the GP has higher accuracy than the benchmark, the evolution continues normally until the maximum number of generations is reached. If the accuracy is lower than the benchmark, two things happen. First, the fitness function is modified to allow larger GPs, able to represent more complex models. Secondly, a decision tree with increased size and trained on a bootstrap of the training data is injected into the population. The experiments show that the hybrid solution of injecting decision trees into a GP population gives synergetic effects producing results that are better than using either technique separately. The results, from 18 UCI data sets, show that the proposed method clearly outperforms normal GP, and is significantly better than the standard decision tree algorithm.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Oracle Coached Decision Trees and Lists2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel method for obtaining increased predictive performance from transparent models in situations where production input vectors are available when building the model. First, labeled training data is used to build a powerful opaque model, called an oracle. Second, the oracle is applied to production instances, generating predicted target values, which are used as labels. Finally, these newly labeled instances are utilized, in different combinations with normal training data, when inducing a transparent model. Experimental results, on 26 UCI data sets, show that the use of oracle coaches significantly improves predictive performance, compared to standard model induction. Most importantly, both accuracy and AUC results are robust over all combinations of opaque and transparent models evaluated. This study thus implies that the straightforward procedure of using a coaching oracle, which can be used with arbitrary classifiers, yields significantly better predictive performance at a low computational cost.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Boström, Henrik
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Using Feature Selection with Bagging and Rule Extraction in Drug Discovery2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates different ways of combining feature selection with bagging and rule extraction in predictive modeling. Experiments on a large number of data sets from the medicinal chemistry domain, using standard algorithms implemented in theWeka data mining workbench, show that feature selection can lead to significantly improved predictive performance.When combining feature selection with bagging, employing the feature selection on each bootstrap obtains the best result.When using decision trees for rule extraction, the effect of feature selection can actually be detrimental, unless the transductive approach oracle coaching is also used. However, employing oracle coaching will lead to significantly improved performance, and the best results are obtainedwhen performing feature selection before training the opaque model. The overall conclusion is that it can make a substantial difference for the predictive performance exactly how feature selection is used in conjunction with other techniques.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Using Imaginary Ensembles to Select GP Classifiers2010In: Genetic Programming: 13th European Conference, EuroGP 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, April 7-9, 2010, Proceedings / [ed] A.I. et al. Esparcia-Alcazar, Springer, 2010, p. 278-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When predictive modeling requires comprehensible models, most data miners will use specialized techniques producing rule sets or decision trees. This study, however, shows that genetically evolved decision trees may very well outperform the more specialized techniques. The proposed approach evolves a number of decision trees and then uses one of several suggested selection strategies to pick one specific tree from that pool. The inherent inconsistency of evolution makes it possible to evolve each tree using all data, and still obtain somewhat different models. The main idea is to use these quite accurate and slightly diverse trees to form an imaginary ensemble, which is then used as a guide when selecting one specific tree. Simply put, the tree classifying the largest number of instances identically to the ensemble is chosen. In the experimentation, using 25 UCI data sets, two selection strategies obtained significantly higher accuracy than the standard rule inducer J48.

  • Sönströd, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Evaluating Algorithms for Concept Description2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing concept description, models need to be evaluated both on accuracy and comprehensibility. A comprehensible concept description model should present the most important relationships in the data in an accurate and understandable way. Two natural representations for this are decision trees and decision lists. In this study, the two decision list algorithms RIPPER and Chipper, and the decision tree algorithm C4.5, are evaluated for concept description, using publicly available datasets. The experiments show that C4.5 performs very well regarding accuracy and brevity, i.e. the ability to classify instances with few tests, but also produces large models that are hard to survey and contain many extremely specific rules, thus not being good concept descriptions. The decision list algorithms perform reasonably well on accuracy, and are mostly able to produce small models with relatively good predictive performance. Regarding brevity, Chipper is better than RIPPER, using on average fewer conditions to classify an instance. RIPPER, on the other hand, excels in relevance, i.e. the ability to capture a large number of instances with every rule.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Using Genetic Programming to Obtain Implicit Diversity2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing predictive data mining, the use of ensembles is known to increase prediction accuracy, compared to single models. To obtain this higher accuracy, ensembles should be built from base classifiers that are both accurate and diverse. The question of how to balance these two properties in order to maximize ensemble accuracy is, however, far from solved and many different techniques for obtaining ensemble diversity exist. One such technique is bagging, where implicit diversity is introduced by training base classifiers on different subsets of available data instances, thus resulting in less accurate, but diverse base classifiers. In this paper, genetic programming is used as an alternative method to obtain implicit diversity in ensembles by evolving accurate, but different base classifiers in the form of decision trees, thus exploiting the inherent inconsistency of genetic programming. The experiments show that the GP approach outperforms standard bagging of decision trees, obtaining significantly higher ensemble accuracy over 25 UCI datasets. This superior performance stems from base classifiers having both higher average accuracy and more diversity. Implicitly introducing diversity using GP thus works very well, since evolved base classifiers tend to be highly accurate and diverse.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Using Optimized Optimization Criteria in Ensemble Member Selection2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both theory and a wealth of empirical studies have established that ensembles are more accurate than single predictive models. Unfortunately, the problem of how to maximize ensemble accuracy is, especially for classification, far from solved. This paper presents a novel technique, where genetic algorithms are used for combining several measurements into a complex criterion that is optimized separately for each dataset. The experimental results show that when using the generated combined optimization criteria to rank candidate ensembles, a higher test set accuracy for the top ranked ensemble was achieved compared to using other measures alone, e.g., estimated ensemble accuracy or the diversity measure difficulty.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Sönströd, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Chipper: A Novel Algorithm for Concept Description2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, several demands placed on concept description algorithms are identified and discussed. The most important criterion is the ability to produce compact rule sets that, in a natural and accurate way, describe the most important relationships in the underlying domain. An algorithm based on the identified criteria is presented and evaluated. The algorithm, named Chipper, produces decision lists, where each rule covers a maximum number of remaining instances while meeting requested accuracy requirements. In the experiments, Chipper is evaluated on nine UCI data sets. The main result is that Chipper produces compact and understandable rule sets, clearly fulfilling the overall goal of concept description. In the experiments, Chipper's accuracy is similar to standard decision tree and rule induction algorithms, while rule sets have superior comprehensibility.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Increasing Rule Extraction Accuracy by Post-processing GP Trees2008In: Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE, 2008, p. 3010-3015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic programming (GP), is a very general and efficient technique, often capable of outperforming more specialized techniques on a variety of tasks. In this paper, we suggest a straightforward novel algorithm for post-processing of GP classification trees. The algorithm iteratively, one node at a time, searches for possible modifications that would result in higher accuracy. More specifically, the algorithm for each split evaluates every possible constant value and chooses the best. With this design, the post-processing algorithm can only increase training accuracy, never decrease it. In this study, we apply the suggested algorithm to GP trees, extracted from neural network ensembles. Experimentation, using 22 UCI datasets, shows that the post-processing results in higher test set accuracies on a large majority of datasets. As a matter of fact, for two setups of three evaluated, the increase in accuracy is statistically significant.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    The Problem with Ranking Ensembles Based on Training or Validation Performance2008In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to somehow use results on training or validation data to estimate ensemble performance on novel data. With the specific setup evaluated; i.e. using ensembles built from a pool of independently trained neural networks and targeting diversity only implicitly, the answer is a resounding no. Experimentation, using 13 UCI datasets, shows that there is in general nothing to gain in performance on novel data by choosing an ensemble based on any of the training measures evaluated here. This is despite the fact that the measures evaluated include all the most frequently used; i.e. ensemble training and validation accuracy, base classifier training and validation accuracy, ensemble training and validation AUC and two diversity measures. The main reason is that all ensembles tend to have quite similar performance, unless we deliberately lower the accuracy of the base classifiers. The key consequence is, of course, that a data miner can do no better than picking an ensemble at random. In addition, the results indicate that it is futile to look for an algorithm aimed at optimizing ensemble performance by somehow selecting a subset of available base classifiers.

  • Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Boström, Henrik
    On the Use of Accuracy and Diversity Measures for Evaluating and Selecting Ensembles of Classifiers2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The test set accuracy for ensembles of classifiers selected based on single measures of accuracy and diversity as well as combinations of such measures is investigated. It is found that by combining measures, a higher test set accuracy may be obtained than by using any single accuracy or diversity measure. It is further investigated whether a multi-criteria search for an ensemble that maximizes both accuracy and diversity leads to more accurate ensembles than by optimizing a single criterion. The results indicate that it might be more beneficial to search for ensembles that are both accurate and diverse. Furthermore, the results show that diversity measures could compete with accuracy measures as selection criterion.

  • Jammula, Chaitanya Krishna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Correlating the microstructure with wear properties of aluminium silicon carbides2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium is one of the metals playing a prominent role in automobile industry after cast iron. Because of its light weight property and good mechanical properties. When aluminium reinforced with silicon carbide showing good tribological properties and improved strength. Aluminium silicon carbide needs some good wear and frictional properties to use it as break disc. Aluminium reinforced with 15% and 20% silicon carbide and casted in two different ways, liquid casting and stir casting. Four different composites are compared in this paper. Hardness test was carried out on the samples. Increase in the Vickers hardness with increase in silicon carbide reinforcement for both the castings is observed. Rockwell C hardness is showing decreasing trend with increase in SiC reinforcement. The scratch resistance of the surface under micro level was analysed with the help of nano scratch test. The SiC particles in the aluminium matrix are resisting the indenter from deep deformation of the surface. Frictional forces are dropped whenever the indenter met the SiC particles. In other cases, SiC particles are deforming the aluminium matrix in the form of broken particles. The plastic deformation of aluminium is observed, and material is piled up on sideways of groove at high load.Sliding wear behaviour of the composites are investigated by means of reciprocating pin on plate wear rig. The test was carried out at load of 20N for five different sliding duration. Aluminium with 20% silicon carbide of liquid casting is used as a base metal. The worn-out surface of the samples is analysed in SEM. The metallography of the worn-out samples is showing some deep grooves and abrasion of the material. Wear debris from both the surfaces are forming into a cluster of layers. These layers are protecting the surface from wear in some areas were observed. Composition of tribo layer formed during the test was investigated with the help of EDS analysis. The tribo layer are rich in aluminium and silicon elements because both the samples are made of aluminium silicon carbide.