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  • Public defence: 2018-12-14 10:00 Forum Humanum, Jönköping
    Lundgren, Dan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Leadership, psychosocial work environment, and satisfaction with elder care among care recipients: Analysing their associations and the structural differences between nursing homes and home care2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Municipal elder care has become increasingly multifaceted, and the quest for quality is a continuing discussion in Swedish elder care. In recent decades, municipalities have prioritized older adults with severe needs. There is also a trend of more elderly individuals receiving care in their own homes. The number of persons 80 years and older will increase by approximately 75 percent between 2015 and 2035. During the same period, the numbers of nursing assistants are likely to decrease. Furthermore, health and social care services have the highest rates of sick leave in Sweden, and the psychosocial work environment plays an important role in reducing sick leave. Perceived support from an organization, leaders and colleagues has been shown to have a positive effect on nursing assistants’ perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in elder care settings. Leadership characteristics or attributes and behaviours have been associated with a healthy work environment. Thus, knowledge regarding the associations between leadership, the psychosocial work environment, and recipient satisfaction in elder care is insufficient.

    Aims

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe the associations between leadership, the psychosocial work environment, and recipient satisfaction in municipal elder care, the changes over time in psychosocial work environment, and the difference between nursing homes and home care.

    Design and methods

    This thesis is based on four cross-sectional studies (I-IV) and one study based on repeated cross-sectional analyses (V). Data from three different surveys were used: the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ), the Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS), and a recipient satisfaction survey (based on a National Board of Health and Welfare recipient satisfaction survey). Study I analyses first-line managers’ assessments of their leadership and nursing assistants’ assessments of their first-line managers. Study II analyses the associations between leadership and the psychosocial work environment, study III the associations between psychosocial work environment and recipient satisfaction, and study IV encompasses all three levels, leadership and the psychosocial work environment, and recipient satisfaction. Study V describes changes in the psychosocial work environment between 2007 and 2015.

    Results

    There are structural differences between nursing homes and home care in the assessments of leadership, the psychosocial work environment, and satisfaction among older people. Linear trends for the period 2007-2015 demonstrate a decline in control at work in both nursing homes and home care and positive trends for stimulus from the work itself. The results also show that nursing assistants in nursing homes rate their psychosocial work environment higher than nursing assistants in home care. Older adults receiving home care report higher satisfaction than those receiving care in nursing homes. In contrast, nursing assistants in home care rate their first-line managers’ leadership and their perceived psychosocial work environment lower than those working in nursing homes. Process-related factors, for example, the association between leadership and the psychosocial work environment, showed that interpersonal factors, such as support from superiors, empowering leadership, human resource primacy, and direct leadership, may impact nursing assistants’ psychosocial work environment in both nursing homes and home care. A better psychosocial work environment among nursing assistants was associated with higher satisfaction among recipients of elder care, except for the recipient satisfaction item staff knowledge, which had negative associations with the psychosocial work environment.

    Conclusions and implications for practice

    To influence nursing assistants’ performance, to increase recipient satisfaction and to increase quality in eldercare in the long term, appropriate leadership and a healthy psychosocial work environment are necessary. To make the most out of the available resources and to meet future challenges (among others) in elder care require organizational attention so that leadership and psychosocial work environments continue to develop in both nursing homes and home care. Therefore, structural differences in elder care must be considered to create a better psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants and, in turn, to create higher care satisfaction for those who are receiving elder care in two different social contexts.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-17 13:15 B1014, Jönköping
    Virta, Sari
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Managing tensions in creative content development work: Cases from the media industry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores organisational tensions and their management in creative content development work in the context of creative industries, particularly media. The study focuses on the dynamic relationship and complexities between current business (exploitation) and future business (exploration), where tensions become managerial issues. It builds on dualities as the overarching analytical concept. The combination of theorisations on ambidexterity, value networks and hybrid organisations is used to examine organisational tensions as dynamic interrelationships between the elements of dualities.

    This compilation dissertation builds on three qualitative case studies, which are investigated in six individual, empirical papers. The case organisations include a company from both public and private media, as well as a collaborative arrangement in a creative industry cluster. The longitudinal empirical data comprises diary writings, interviews, documentation and participant observations.

    The study extends the understanding about how and why organisational tensions pose a demanding managerial challenge to established companies. It suggests that these tensions cannot be solved as such; instead, they need to be managed “with” rather than “against”. The study contributes to previous literature by combining theoretical perspectives to create links between existing approaches on ambidexterity. Regarding clusters, the study offers new knowledge by shifting the focus from mere spatial co-location to shared value creation through collaborative relationships.

    As implications for practice, the study suggests that managerial effort is required to anticipate, identify, evaluate, and navigate tensions in creative work. The results emphasise the key importance of embracing interrelated, coexisting, enduring, and complex tensions as a multifaceted package.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-18 13:15 B1014, Jönköping
    Zehra, Khizran
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Resource mobilization among informal entrepreneurs: A case of event planning industry of Pakistan2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation studies resource mobilization among informal entrepreneurs. It combines the resource mobilization perspective with insights from social capital and human capital theory to understand the resource mobilization activities of informal entrepreneurs, focusing on the founding period and the early years of existence of informal ventures. Empirically the study is based on 15 cases from event planning industry of Pakistan. It primarily uses semi-structured interviews along with observations and secondary documents. The within and cross-case coding are aggregated into a conceptual model that paves the way to understanding inter-organizational gains through informal entrepreneurial networks. These informal entrepreneurial networks are largely based on competitor’s networks that support the exchange of resources, such as the exchange of knowledge, raw material, ideas, opportunities, etc. The new insights contributed from the findings are that resource mobilization is not competitive but rather collaborative among informal entrepreneurs. This collaborative resource mobilization is mainly based on activities like competitor’s collaboration, collaborative knowledge sharing through informal venturing, for the advancement of business goals at founding and in later stages. Collaborative resource mobilization is an alternative to competitive resource mobilization, whereby the flow of resources in the networks remains competitive when it comes to business rivalry. The study contributes to the role of social and human capital in resource mobilizing activities that improve the synergistic effects contributing to the readiness of informal entrepreneurs. Trust and reciprocal exchange of resources among competitors act as a major strengthening factor in promoting collaborative resource mobilization among informal entrepreneurs. It also contributes to the informal entrepreneurship literature and suggests that informal entrepreneurship should not be considered as marginalized activities, but rather a platform where the considerable potential of creative entrepreneurial activity is present.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-19 13:15 B1014, Jönköping
    Shema, Jean Bosco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The adoption and implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Rwanda2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting has played a significant role in globalization through instruments like the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB), the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) which have harmonized global business practices. With the spread of globalization, the persistence of local realities has become a global issue. While IFRS has been adopted across the world, local contexts are impeding its smooth implementation.

    This study investigates this phenomenon in the Rwandan context by discussing how IFRS has been adopted by commercial banks in Rwanda and in sub-Saharan African countries. In Rwanda, IFRS’ adoption was influenced by the country’s economic context (dire need for reconstruction), social context (Rwandans with different accounting traditions due to the conflict and the movement of people across the region and in the world and their returning to their home country) and the political context (colonial legacy and accounting initiatives of the independent African countries and Rwanda’s regional and international integration policies).

    My findings suggest that the adoption of IFRS was done after intense preparations and its implementation was monitored as it was believed that these standards would catalyze the government’s economic development goals. The findings also show the bi-directional relationship between accounting and the environment in which it operates. While IRFS’ adoption was swayed by the prevailing environment these standards also formed a part of the country’s strategy for economic development and a mechanism for promoting equity among its citizens.

    The findings also show that the professionalization of accounting was context bound and was influenced by the accounting environment in Rwanda and that professionalization contributed to conflict prevention and resolution among accounting practitioners. The study also shows that the government played a big role in the development of accounting as a profession.