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  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 10:00 Zoom Webinar and in B1014, Jönköping
    Nilsson, Helena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Spatial organization of retail activities2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a compilation of four independent papers that examine the spatial process of retail location. The central question I ask is how changes in access to consumer demand affects retail in terms of size and survival. I empirically analyze these aspects on municipality, neighborhood and firm level using Swedish data from Statistics Sweden, HUI Research AB and Datscha Sweden.

    The first paper (co-authored with Sven-Olov Daunfeldt, Oana Mihaescu and Niklas Rudholm) examines the effect of durable goods big-box retailer IKEA entry on retail net turnover and employment in the municipalities of entry and their neighbors. In the second paper I assess the effect of IKEA entry on firm level net turnover and employment of retail, restaurants, and accommodation firms at varying distances from the new IKEA. The third paper (co-authored with Johan Klaesson) addresses the relationship between entry of out-of-town located shopping malls and the exit of incumbent stores. We examine how the probability of exit relates to the order of the goods that are sold by the retailers and how local density of demand influences the outcome. In the third paper I examine changes in food store access by proximity on the neighborhood level and how this is related to population density.

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  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 13:00 Albert aula F105, Trollhättan
    Johnsson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Creating and establishing a positive care relationship between nurses, patients and relatives: An ethnographic study of encounters at a department of medicine for older people2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Numerous encounters take place in the healthcare sector every day. Although the encounters should be conducted in a safe and respectful manner, an increased number of complaints about communication and interaction have been reported to the Health and Social Care Inspectorate. When a nurse, patient and relative meet in a so-called triad encounter, the focus is on creating and establishing a care relationship with the facilitated by communication and interaction. Thus, if communication and interaction fail in these encounters there is a risk that the care relationship will be bad and the patient's needs not fulfilled, which can lead to poorly prepared patients with difficulties participating in their own care. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe the care relationship, communication, content and social interaction in the triad encounter between nurses, patients and relatives at a department of medicine for older people.

    Methods: The four studies were designed using a qualitative, ethnographic approach guided by Vygotsky’s sociocultural and Goffman’s interactional perspective. Participatory observations (n=40) and informal field conversations (n=120) with patients, relatives and nurses were carried out (October 2015-September 2016) at the same time as field notes were written. Studies I, II and III were underpinned by an ethnographic analysis, while in study in IV, a thematic analysis with an abductive approach was conducted.

    Results: The result of study I, identified a process where patients, relatives and nurses used different strategies for navigating before, during and after a triad encounter. The process was based on the following categories: orienting in time and space, contributing to a care relationship and forming a new point of view. Study II, showed how nurses communicated, using four different voices which reinforced by body language, which formed patterns that constituted approaches that changed depending on the situation and orientation: a medical voice, a nursing voice, a pedagogical voice and a power voice. Study III, emphasized three categories of content of the communication exchanges: medical content focusing on the patient’s medical condition; personal content focusing on the patient’s life story; and explanatory content characterized by nurses attempting to increase the patient’s and relative’s knowledge about the patient’s health and nursing needs. Study IV showed that, to create social interaction, the nurses employed greetings, small talk and bodily expressions. Patients accepted the invitation with body language, while relatives employed various strategies to receive an invitation. Nurses led the conversation, patients followed and described their health problem through gestures, while relatives captured the moment to receive and give information. Nurses summarized using ritual language, patients expressed gratitude’s through verbal and non-verbal expressions and relatives verbally clarified the agreements. The synthesis of the four results showed a model with the four activities as puzzle pieces: navigating through different perspectives, being involved in the communication, being attentive to social interaction and explaining the relevant content. When the institutional environment is such that the asymmetry between the nurse, patient and relative is limited, and the norms and routines promote communication between them, it is more likely that the puzzle pieces fit together and an opportunity arises to create and establish a positive care relationship in the triad encounters.

    Conclusion: The nurses' role as a professional is crucial, as they start, lead and end the encounter. If nurses minimize the asymmetry and combine the medical, personal and pedagogical questions, an opportunity arises for creating and establishing a positive care relationship that enables the patients to become more active and relatives more visible. This can contribute to strengthening the patient’s position in the healthcare system and increasing patient safety.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-05 13:00 Forum Humanum, Jönköping
    Stadin, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    The digitalised work environment: Health, experiences and actions2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this thesis was to examine the association between technostress, operationalised as information and communication technology (ICT) demands, and indicators of work-related stress, as well as its association with self-rated health. Additional aims were to identify occupational groups at risk with regard to ICT demands, and to describe experiences of technostress and how it was handled by healthcare managers.

    Methods: The thesis includes four individual papers. Papers I–III have a quantitative (cross-sectional or prospective) study design and are based on data derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) and collected between 2006 and 2016. Data was analysed by statistical methods, such as linear and logistic regression analysis. Paper IV has a qualitative study design and is based on data from 20 semi-structured interviews with healthcare managers. The data was analysed using the critical incident technique.

    Results: ICT demands were correlated with job strain and effort-reward imbalance, especially the demands and effort dimensions of these measures. High ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health in cross-sectional analyses and in prospective analyses including repeated measurement. Managers, and particularly ‘managers in healthcare and other community services’, followed by ‘managers in education’, had the highest odds ratio of ICT demands, in comparison with both ‘non-managers’ and ‘all other managers’. Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress could be categorised into the main areas ‘negative aspects of digital communication’, ‘poor user experience of ICTs’ and ‘needs to improve organisational resources’. The actions they took to cope with technostress were categorised into the main areas ‘culture, norms and social support’, ‘individual resources’ and ‘organisational resources’.

    Conclusions: Technostress operationalised as ICT demands is associated with suboptimal self-rated health. Occupational groups differ in their exposure to ICT demands by industry and position. Organisational efforts to ensure a sustainable and healthy digital work environment are warranted. ICT demands should be assessed against ICT resources for a comprehensive understanding of their association with health.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-09 15:00 Zoom webinar and in B1014, Jönköping
    Kekezi, Orsa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Labor mobility across jobs and space2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of one introductory chapter and four independent papers. Each paper looks at different aspects of labor mobility, especially focusing on the transferability of specific human capital and the role of space for job matching.

    The focus of the first paper is to examine how diversity of previous work experience of employees in creative industries matters for labor productivity. I further distinguish between related vs. unrelated occupation and industry experience to better understand how they matter for knowledge flows within a firm. The results show that diversity, and especially relatedness of previous occupational experience, are positively related to labor productivity.

    In the second paper, I study how co-location of knowledge-intensive business services influences the innovative capacity of the sector. The results suggest that co-location facilitates labor mobility and thereby knowledge flows as well as innovation capacity across firms.

    In the third and fourth papers, the focus shifts from the firm to the individual. The third paper examines how regional characteristics, especially Marshallian labor market pooling, influence the type of employment obtained after job displacement. The results show that regional industrial and occupational structures are crucial for facilitating job matches and occupational upgrades of individuals. The fourth paper examines whether there are wage returns to migration after job displacement, after the job match is considered. The results indicate that returns to migration are positive only when combined with a re-employment that matches the skills of the worker.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:15 B1014
    Sindambiwe, Pierre
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The challenges of continuity in family businesses in Rwanda2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on a developing country, this study investigates how an owning family builds its business’ continuity. While scholars of family businesses tend to depict the continuity of a family firm in terms of family succession, preserving the family legacy, or the firm’s longevity, in the social context of a developing country that is dominated by instability and hostility, family firms are subject to day-by-day survival risks. My approach is viewing family businesses’ continuity as day-by-day survival for the sake of ensuring the long-term orientation of the family businesses in the context of a developing country. The family is situated in a broader social context, and therefore the business is embedded in the family’s social networks that cannot be detached from the country’s social context. The developing country context is important because of its culture, politics, and history that differ from a developed world.

    In this thesis, the continuity of family businesses is understood as: (1) sustaining the family’s legacy coming of the founder’s achievements, (2) succession, sustaining the business beyond the founder’s tenure, and ensuring that both the family and business stay together, and (3) longevity, ensuring a long-term orientation which is a crucial characteristic of all family businesses. This last category is relevant to this thesis because long-term orientation is achieved through futurity, persistence, and continuity patterns. This thesis focuses on continuity as daily and short-term survival to ensure the long-term orientation of a family business. Different theoretical lenses including portfolio literature, socialization literature, and commitment literature were tried for in this thesis. Commitment literature was found binding both portfolio and socialization literature. And therefore, commitment literature was considered reliable for understanding the challenges of family businesses’ continuity. Using commitment literature, this study uses data collected from founder-led business families in Rwanda and investigates how the commitments of actors at multiple levels affects the day-by-day survival of family businesses.

    The thesis follows a qualitative approach with multiple cases of research design. It uses data from six founder-led business families in Rwanda. It follows the interview approach and uses the INVIVO program to code the transcribed data. The phenomenon of how the family built its business’ continuity is investigated following a multi-level analysis, that is, how each level affected the continuity of the family business or individual, family, and business levels in a business family. The individual level has founders, next generation members, women, in-laws, and non-family employees (Sharma, 2004). It uses the grounded theory for elaborating on matters arising when investigating the continuity of family businesses (see Figure 6.1). A family business’ continuity model is built to map ‘how’ a family builds its business continuity as well as ‘what’ is the expected role played by each level (see Figure 7.1), and a day-by-day continuity model of the family business is crafted to understand the mechanisms behind its day-by-day continuity (see Figure 7.2).

    The findings of this thesis show clearly that family businesses in Rwanda are focused on preserving their firms for retaining the family legacy, but unfortunately, they are unable to plan for a long-term legacy. I posit that short-term survival, repeatedly, will lead to long-term survival and, subsequently, to longevity. The findings highlight the role of the specific context and associated cultural aspects of continuity in family businesses. The three aggregate dimensions developed present three main challenges to the continuity of family businesses in Rwanda. First, due to Rwandan cultural obligations of inheritance by the next generation, both the founding generation and the next generations are committed to family businesses’ continuity. Unfortunately, there is a detachment among generations in Rwanda, which is contrary to the cooperation expected in family businesses. Second, the uncertainties and inertia resulting from the absence of co-ownership and the inter-generational distance due to cultural aspects lead to separate and parallel planning for businesses’ continuity. Third, when it comes to the involvement in the management of family businesses, inter-generational conflicts and uncertainties result in weak family embeddedness that may push some family members away from the family businesses. This situation is a challenge because the absence of co-management between the incumbents and the next generation is abnormal since both parties, like dancing partners, need to manage the transition.

    Ignoring the three challenges that they face, business families in Rwanda strive for continuity through (1) created and protected family legacy, (2) created inner cohesion among the next generation’s members, (3) in-laws and non-family members assimilated into the family business, (4) the family forming norms for succession, governance, and order-conflict processes, and (5) the family business’ resilience maintained for the family and community. Missing this mindset of planning for the long-term explains why many business families in Rwanda fail to continue after the founder’s tenure. There are many reasons for not planning for the long-term. In this thesis, the factors in a family business’ continuity are linked to (a) the family setting and the social capital of both direct and invisible members that ensures on-going activities of the family business; (b) the cultural setting related to inheritance management, heirship/legal ownership succession, family chieftaincy retention, and leadership succession, and (c) the institutional uncertainty and Ubuntu or a communitarianist nature of family firms as a way of living in a developing country making it difficult to plan for the long term.

    This study contributes to an understanding of the heterogeneity of contexts in family business research. It will also assist owners and practitioners operating in changing environments to design informed continuity plans that have the potential to ensure the survival of family businesses in Rwanda. Theoretically, the study concludes that a commitment to continuing family businesses is shared by different levels in business families, but each level has one primary form of commitment and many forms of secondary commitment for the continuity of family businesses. There is a fluidity in commitment among multiple levels in business families.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-17 13:15 B1014 and as Zoom Webinar, Jönköping
    Feng, Songming
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Craft production in the Kingdom of Crystal (Glasriket) and its visual representation: Constructing authenticity in cultural/marketing production2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is a core concept and phenomenon in contemporary marketing, as both marketers and consumers seek the authentic. Individuals, companies, and industries all work to establish and accomplish authenticity for themselves and related stakeholders. As a marketing point for creating differentiation and singularity, authenticity has the potential to augment the value of a product above and beyond its promising functional, esthetic, or experiential significance. However, authenticity is a concept with heavily debated characteristics, and it is not well understood in its market manifestations. Academic work on authenticity remains vague in terms of both its definition and its marketing relevance. There has been limited empirical understanding of and theorizing about what is meant by authenticity and how it is manifested in production and consumption in the marketplace. In practice, the nature and use of authenticity in the field of marketing is still full of ambiguity and confusion. For marketers, brand authenticity is easy to recognize but hard to manufacture. How producers and marketers manage the development, positioning, and communication of authentic offerings and how they engineer, fabricate, or construct authenticity remain unanswered questions.

    This dissertation answers the call of Jones, Anand, and Alvarez (2005, p. 894) to determine which strategies are used for creating and defining authenticity and how these strategies shape our understanding of what is authentic and the call of Beverland (2005a) to find out how brands and marketers create and develop images of authenticity. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how authenticity of market offerings is constructed in two cultural/marketing production sites—the craft production of glass objects and commercial photographers’ image production as visual representation of the former—to understand the mechanisms behind the authentication of market offerings and the paradoxes within the construction work.

    This purpose was fulfilled by pairing the two theoretical domains of cultural/marketing production and authenticity for the investigation of an empirical site—the Kingdom of Crystal (“Glasriket” in Swedish)—located in southern Sweden. As a traditional craft-producing industrial region and a tourist destination, the site has been dedicated to making consumer glass products, maintaining its production mode and ethos as a handmade craft, for more than one hundred years. Being producer focused, the craft sector and craft production offer a strong empirical instantiation of authenticity and can serve as a fertile field to explore and problematize the issue of authenticity at the intersection with cultural/marketing production. The research was conducted over a three-year period with an interpretive and ethnographic approach tapping into multiple sources of data.

    This dissertation finds that the glass producers in Glasriket substantively construct five categories of authenticity (technique, material, geographical, temporal, and original) of market offerings via craft production and that commercial photographers communicate and authenticate the craft production world via their image-making practices, which are dimensionalized into a typology consisting of five categories of practice: reproducing, documenting, participating, estheticizing, and indexing. Illuminating the two-step micro process of cultural/marketing production—the concurrent practices of the product makers and the promoters, this dissertation theorizes about how authenticity operates vis-à-vis two types of production (substantive product making and communicative image making), yielding a number of contributions to authenticity scholarship and the literature on cultural/marketing production. It provides managerial implications for marketers/producers in Glasriket regarding how they can leverage cultural resources to conduct retro marketing as well as suggestions for marketers beyond this context about visual marketing and authenticity-based marketing.

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